第二十四封信:要善良,要有独创性,要创造更多的价值

第二十四封信中英文对照:

To our shareowners:

致亚马逊的股东:

In Amazon’s 1997 letter to shareholders, our first, I talked about our hope to create an “enduring franchise,” one that would reinvent what it means to serve customers by unlocking the internet’s power. I noted that Amazon had grown from having 158 employees to 614, and that we had surpassed 1.5 million customer accounts. We had just gone public at a split-adjusted stock price of $1.50 per share. I wrote that it was Day 1.

在亚马逊1997年写给股东的第一封信中,我谈到了我们希望创造一种“持久的特许经营权”,一种通过释放互联网的力量来重新定义为顾客服务的特许经营权。我注意到亚马逊已经从158名员工发展到614名员工,我们已经超过了150万客户账户。我们刚刚上市,经拆股调整后的股价为每股1.50美元。我写的是第一天。

We’ve come a long way since then, and we are working harder than ever to serve and delight customers. Last year, we hired 500,000 employees and now directly employ 1.3 million people around the world. We have more than 200 million Prime members worldwide. More than 1.9 million small and medium-sized businesses sell in our store, and they make up close to 60% of our retail sales. Customers have connected more than 100 million smart home devices to Alexa. Amazon Web Services serves millions of customers and ended 2020 with a $50 billion annualized run rate. In 1997, we hadn’t invented Prime, Marketplace, Alexa, or AWS. They weren’t even ideas then, and none was preordained. We took great risk with each one and put sweat and ingenuity into each one.

从那时起,我们已经取得了长足的进步,我们比以往任何时候都更加努力地服务和取悦客户。去年,我们雇佣了500,000名员工,现在全世界直接雇佣了130万名员工。我们在全球拥有超过2亿的会员。超过190万家中小企业在我们店里销售,占我们零售额的近60% 。用户已经将超过1亿台智能家居设备连接到 Alexa 上。亚马逊网络服务为数以百万计的用户提供服务,到2020年年化运营率达到500亿美元。在1997年,我们还没有发明 Prime、 Marketplace、 Alexa 或 AWS。那时他们甚至还不是思想,也没有什么是注定的。我们冒着巨大的风险,为每一个人付出了汗水和智慧。

Along the way, we’ve created $1.6 trillion of wealth for shareowners. Who are they? Your Chair is one, and my Amazon shares have made me wealthy. But more than 7/8ths of the shares, representing $1.4 trillion of wealth creation, are owned by others. Who are they? They’re pension funds, universities, and 401(k)s, and they’re Mary and Larry, who sent me this note out of the blue just as I was sitting down to write this shareholder letter:

一路走来,我们为股民创造了1.6万亿美元的财富。他们是谁?你的椅子就是其中之一,我的亚马逊股份让我变得富有。但是超过八分之七的股份,代表着1.4万亿美元的财富创造,是由其他人持有的。他们是谁?他们是养老基金、大学和401(k)养老金,他们是玛丽和拉里,就在我坐下来给股东写这封信的时候,他们突然给我发来了这封信:

I am approached with similar stories all the time. I know people who’ve used their Amazon money for college, for emergencies, for houses, for vacations, to start their own business, for charity – and the list goes on. I’m proud of the wealth we’ve created for shareowners. It’s significant, and it improves their lives. But I also know something else: it’s not the largest part of the value we’ve created.

我一直接触到类似的故事。我认识一些人,他们用亚马逊的钱上大学,应付紧急情况,买房子,度假,开创自己的事业,做慈善——这样的例子还有很多。我为我们为股民创造的财富感到骄傲。这意义重大,并且改善了他们的生活。但我还知道一些其他的东西: 它不是我们创造的价值中最大的部分。

Create More Than You Consume

创造比你消耗更多

If you want to be successful in business (in life, actually), you have to create more than you consume. Your goal should be to create value for everyone you interact with. Any business that doesn’t create value for those it touches, even if it appears successful on the surface, isn’t long for this world. It’s on the way out.

如果你想在事业上取得成功(实际上是在生活中) ,你必须创造比你消耗的更多。你的目标应该是为每一个与你互动的人创造价值。任何不能为所接触的人创造价值的企业,即使表面上看起来很成功,在这个世界上也不会长久。在出去的路上。

Remember that stock prices are not about the past. They are a prediction of future cash flows discounted back to the present. The stock market anticipates. I’m going to switch gears for a moment and talk about the past. How much value did we create for shareowners in 2020? This is a relatively easy question to answer because accounting systems are set up to answer it. Our net income in 2020 was $21.3 billion. If, instead of being a publicly traded company with thousands of owners, Amazon were a sole proprietorship with a single owner, that’s how much the owner would have earned in 2020.

记住,股票价格不是关于过去的。它们是对未来现金流折现回到现在的预测。股票市场预期。我要换一下话题,谈谈过去。2020年我们为股民创造了多少价值?这是一个相对容易回答的问题,因为会计系统就是用来回答这个问题的。我们2020年的净利润是213亿美元。如果亚马逊不是一个拥有成千上万所有者的上市公司,而是一个拥有单一所有者的独资企业,那么这就是所有者在2020年的收入。

How about employees? This is also a reasonably easy value creation question to answer because we can look at compensation expense. What is an expense for a company is income for employees. In 2020, employees earned $80 billion, plus another $11 billion to include benefits and various payroll taxes, for a total of $91 billion.

那雇员呢?这也是一个相当容易回答的价值创造问题,因为我们可以看看补偿费用。对于公司来说,开支就是员工的收入。2020年,员工的收入为800亿美元,加上110亿美元的福利和各种工资税,共计910亿美元。

How about third-party sellers? We have an internal team (the Selling Partner Services team) that works to answer that question. They estimate that, in 2020, third-party seller profits from selling on Amazon were between $25 billion and $39 billion, and to be conservative here I’ll go with $25 billion.

第三方卖家怎么样?我们有一个内部团队(销售伙伴服务团队)来回答这个问题。他们估计,到2020年,第三方销售商在亚马逊上销售产品的利润在250亿美元到390亿美元之间。

For customers, we have to break it down into consumer customers and AWS customers.

对于客户,我们必须将其分解为消费者客户和 AWS 客户。

We’ll do consumers first. We offer low prices, vast selection, and fast delivery, but imagine we ignore all of that for the purpose of this estimate and value only one thing: we save customers time.

我们将首先针对消费者。我们提供低廉的价格,大量的选择,快速的交货,但是想象一下,我们忽略了所有这些,为了这个估计和价值只有一件事: 我们节省客户的时间。

Customers complete 28% of purchases on Amazon in three minutes or less, and half of all purchases are finished in less than 15 minutes. Compare that to the typical shopping trip to a physical store – driving, parking, searching store aisles, waiting in the checkout line, finding your car, and driving home. Research suggests the typical physical store trip takes about an hour. If you assume that a typical Amazon purchase takes 15 minutes and that it saves you a couple of trips to a physical store a week, that’s more than 75 hours a year saved. That’s important. We’re all busy in the early 21st century.

在亚马逊上,28% 的消费者在三分钟或更短的时间内完成了购买,一半的购买在15分钟内完成。比较一下典型的购物之旅——开车,停车,搜索商店过道,排队结账,找到你的车,然后开车回家。研究表明,典型的实体商店之旅大约需要一个小时。如果你假设一次典型的亚马逊购物需要15分钟,并且每周可以节省几次去实体店的时间,那么每年节省的时间就超过75个小时。这很重要。在21世纪初,我们都很忙碌。

So that we can get a dollar figure, let’s value the time savings at $10 per hour, which is conservative. Seventy-five hours multiplied by $10 an hour and subtracting the cost of Prime gives you value creation for each Prime member of about $630. We have 200 million Prime members, for a total in 2020 of $126 billion of value creation.

所以我们可以得到一个美元的数字,让我们以每小时10美元的价值来衡量节省的时间,这是保守的。75小时乘以每小时10美元,再减去 Prime 的成本,你每个 Prime 会员的价值创造约630美元。我们拥有2亿首要会员,2020年总共创造了1260亿美元的价值。

AWS is challenging to estimate because each customer’s workload is so different, but we’ll do it anyway, acknowledging up front that the error bars are high. Direct cost improvements from operating in the cloud versus on premises vary, but a reasonable estimate is 30%. Across AWS’s entire 2020 revenue of $45 billion, that 30% would imply customer value creation of $19 billion (what would have cost them $64 billion on their own cost $45 billion from AWS). The difficult part of this estimation exercise is that the direct cost reduction is the smallest portion of the customer benefit of moving to the cloud. The bigger benefit is the increased speed of software development – something that can significantly improve the customer’s competitiveness and top line. We have no reasonable way of estimating that portion of customer value except to say that it’s almost certainly larger than the direct cost savings. To be conservative here (and remembering we’re really only trying to get ballpark estimates), I’ll say it’s the same and call AWS customer value creation $38 billion in 2020.

因为每个客户的工作负载是如此的不同,AWS 的估算是很有挑战性的,但是我们还是要做,事先承认错误条件很高。在云端运营的直接成本提高与在线运营的直接成本提高有所不同,但合理的估计是30% 。纵观 AWS 2020年全年450亿美元的收入,这30% 意味着客户价值创造了190亿美元(这意味着他们自己花费了640亿美元,而 AWS 花费了450亿美元)。这个评估工作的难点在于,直接成本降低是转移到云计算的客户利益中最小的一部分。更大的好处是提高了软件开发的速度——这可以显著提高客户的竞争力和销售额。我们没有合理的方法来估计客户价值的这一部分,只能说它几乎肯定大于直接成本节约。在这里保守一点(记住我们只是试图得到大概的估计) ,我会说这是一样的,并称 AWS 的客户价值创造在2020年为380亿美元。

Adding AWS and consumer together gives us total customer value creation in 2020 of $164 billion.

加上 AWS 和消费者,2020年我们总共创造了1640亿美元的客户价值。

Summarizing:
Shareholders      $21B
Employees          $91B
3P Sellers            $25B
Customers           $164B
Total                    $301B

总结: 股东 $21B 雇员 $91B 3P 卖家 $25B 顾客 $164B 总计 $301B

If each group had an income statement representing their interactions with Amazon, the numbers above would be the “bottom lines” from those income statements. These numbers are part of the reason why people work for us, why sellers sell through us, and why customers buy from us. We create value for them. And this value creation is not a zero-sum game. It is not just moving money from one pocket to another. Draw the box big around all of society, and you’ll find that invention is the root of all real value creation. And value created is best thought of as a metric for innovation.

如果每个群体都有一个代表他们与亚马逊互动的收益表,上面的数字就是这些收益表的“底线”。这些数字是为什么人们为我们工作,为什么卖家通过我们销售,为什么客户从我们这里购买的部分原因。我们为他们创造价值。这种价值创造不是零和游戏。这不仅仅是把钱从一个口袋转移到另一个口袋。在整个社会周围画一个大盒子,你会发现发明是所有真正创造价值的根源。创造价值是衡量创新的最佳标准。

Of course, our relationship with these constituencies and the value we create isn’t exclusively dollars and cents. Money doesn’t tell the whole story. Our relationship with shareholders, for example, is relatively simple. They invest and hold shares for a duration of their choosing. We provide direction to shareowners infrequently on matters such as annual meetings and the right process to vote their shares. And even then they can ignore those directions and just skip voting.

当然,我们与这些选民的关系以及我们创造的价值不仅仅是美元和美分。钱不能说明一切。例如,我们与股东的关系相对简单。他们在自己选择的期限内投资和持有股票。我们很少在年度会议和正确的投票程序等事项上为股民提供指导。即使这样,他们也可以忽略这些指示,直接跳过投票。

Our relationship with employees is a very different example. We have processes they follow and standards they meet. We require training and various certifications. Employees have to show up at appointed times. Our interactions with employees are many, and they’re fine-grained. It’s not just about the pay and the benefits. It’s about all the other detailed aspects of the relationship too.

我们与员工的关系就是一个非常不同的例子。我们有他们遵循的流程和符合的标准。我们需要培训和各种证书。员工必须在约定的时间出现。我们与员工之间的互动很多,而且是细致入微的。这不仅仅是薪水和福利的问题。这也是关于这段关系的所有其他细节方面。

Does your Chair take comfort in the outcome of the recent union vote in Bessemer? No, he doesn’t. I think we need to do a better job for our employees. While the voting results were lopsided and our direct relationship with employees is strong, it’s clear to me that we need a better vision for how we create value for employees – a vision for their success.

你的主席是否对最近贝塞默的工会投票结果感到安慰?不,他没有。我认为我们需要为我们的员工做得更好。虽然投票结果不平衡,我们与员工的直接关系也很牢固,但我清楚地知道,我们需要一个更好的愿景来为员工创造价值——一个他们成功的愿景。

If you read some of the news reports, you might think we have no care for employees. In those reports, our employees are sometimes accused of being desperate souls and treated as robots. That’s not accurate. They’re sophisticated and thoughtful people who have options for where to work. When we survey fulfillment center employees, 94% say they would recommend Amazon to a friend as a place to work.

如果你读了一些新闻报道,你可能会认为我们不关心员工。在这些报告中,我们的员工有时被指责为绝望的灵魂,被当作机器人对待。这不准确。他们都是成熟而有思想的人,在哪里工作都有自己的选择。当我们调查履行中心的员工时,94% 的人说他们会把亚马逊推荐给朋友作为工作场所。

Employees are able to take informal breaks throughout their shifts to stretch, get water, use the rest room, or talk to a manager, all without impacting their performance. These informal work breaks are in addition to the 30-minute lunch and 30-minute break built into their normal schedule.

员工可以在整个轮班期间进行非正式休息,伸展身体,取水,使用洗手间,或者与经理交谈,所有这些都不会影响他们的工作表现。这些非正式的工作休息时间是在他们正常日程安排的30分钟午餐和30分钟休息时间之外的。

We don’t set unreasonable performance goals. We set achievable performance goals that take into account tenure and actual employee performance data. Performance is evaluated over a long period of time as we know that a variety of things can impact performance in any given week, day, or hour. If employees are on track to miss a performance target over a period of time, their manager talks with them and provides coaching.

我们不会设定不合理的绩效目标。我们设定可实现的绩效目标,考虑到任期和实际的员工绩效数据。绩效评估要经过很长一段时间,因为我们知道在任何给定的一周、一天或一小时中,各种各样的事情都会影响绩效。如果员工在一段时间内没有达到绩效目标,他们的经理会与他们交谈并提供指导。

Coaching is also extended to employees who are excelling and in line for increased responsibilities. In fact, 82% of coaching is positive, provided to employees who are meeting or exceeding expectations. We terminate the employment of less than 2.6% of employees due to their inability to perform their jobs (and that number was even lower in 2020 because of operational impacts of COVID-19).

培训也扩展到那些优秀的员工和那些需要承担更多责任的员工。事实上,82% 的指导是积极的,提供给那些达到或超过预期的员工。我们解雇了不到2.6% 的员工,因为他们无法完成自己的工作(2020年,这个数字甚至更低,因为2019冠状病毒疾病的操作影响)。

Earth’s Best Employer and Earth’s Safest Place to Work

地球上最好的雇主和最安全的工作场所

The fact is, the large team of thousands of people who lead operations at Amazon have always cared deeply for our hourly employees, and we’re proud of the work environment we’ve created. We’re also proud of the fact that Amazon is a company that does more than just create jobs for computer scientists and people with advanced degrees. We create jobs for people who never got that advantage.

事实上,在亚马逊,由成千上万的人组成的庞大团队一直都非常关心我们的小时工,我们为自己创造的工作环境感到自豪。亚马逊不仅为计算机科学家和拥有高等学位的人创造就业机会,我们还为这家公司感到骄傲。我们为那些从未获得这种优势的人创造就业机会。

Despite what we’ve accomplished, it’s clear to me that we need a better vision for our employees’ success. We have always wanted to be Earth’s Most Customer-Centric Company. We won’t change that. It’s what got us here. But I am committing us to an addition. We are going to be Earth’s Best Employer and Earth’s Safest Place to Work.

不管我们取得了什么样的成就,我很清楚,我们需要为员工的成功制定一个更好的愿景。我们一直想成为地球上最以客户为中心的公司。我们不会改变这一点。这就是我们来到这里的原因。但是我承诺我们要增加一个。我们将成为地球上最好的雇主和地球上最安全的工作场所。

In my upcoming role as Executive Chair, I’m going to focus on new initiatives. I’m an inventor. It’s what I enjoy the most and what I do best. It’s where I create the most value. I’m excited to work alongside the large team of passionate people we have in Ops and help invent in this arena of Earth’s Best Employer and Earth’s Safest Place to Work. On the details, we at Amazon are always flexible, but on matters of vision we are stubborn and relentless. We have never failed when we set our minds to something, and we’re not going to fail at this either.

在我即将担任执行主席的职务中,我将专注于新的倡议。我是个发明家。这是我最喜欢的,也是我最擅长的。这是我创造最大价值的地方。我很高兴能和我们在行动中心的一大群充满激情的人们一起工作,并且帮助创建这个地球上最好的雇主和地球上最安全的工作场所的舞台。在细节方面,我们在亚马逊总是很灵活,但在视觉方面,我们却很顽固,冷酷无情。当我们下定决心做某件事的时候,我们从来没有失败过,我们也不会在这件事上失败。

We dive deep into safety issues. For example, about 40% of work-related injuries at Amazon are related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), things like sprains or strains that can be caused by repetitive motions. MSDs are common in the type of work that we do and are more likely to occur during an employee’s first six months. We need to invent solutions to reduce MSDs for new employees, many of whom might be working in a physical role for the first time.

我们深入研究安全问题。例如,亚马逊公司约40% 的工伤与肌肉骨骼疾病有关,比如扭伤或者由重复运动引起的劳损。在我们所从事的工作类型中,msd 很常见,而且更有可能发生在员工的头六个月。我们需要为新员工找到减少 msd 的解决方案,他们中的许多人可能是第一次担任物理角色。

One such program is WorkingWell – which we launched to 859,000 employees at 350 sites across North America and Europe in 2020 – where we coach small groups of employees on body mechanics, proactive wellness, and safety. In addition to reducing workplace injuries, these concepts have a positive impact on regular day-to-day activities outside work.

我们在2020年在北美和欧洲的350个地点向859,000名员工推出了一个这样的项目,我们在这个项目中对小组员工进行身体机械、积极健康和安全方面的培训。除了减少工伤外,这些概念还对工作之外的日常活动产生了积极的影响。

We’re developing new automated staffing schedules that use sophisticated algorithms to rotate employees among jobs that use different muscle-tendon groups to decrease repetitive motion and help protect employees from MSD risks. This new technology is central to a job rotation program that we’re rolling out throughout 2021.

我们正在开发新的自动化人员配置时间表,使用复杂的算法在使用不同肌腱群的工作岗位之间轮换员工,以减少重复运动,并帮助保护员工免受 MSD 风险。这项新技术是我们在2021年推出的工作轮换计划的核心。

Our increased attention to early MSD prevention is already achieving results. From 2019 to 2020, overall MSDs decreased by 32%, and MSDs resulting in time away from work decreased by more than half.

我们对早期预防 MSD 的重视已经取得了成效。从2019年到2020年,总体味精浓度下降了32% ,导致离开工作的时间减少了一半以上。

We employ 6,200 safety professionals at Amazon. They use the science of safety to solve complex problems and establish new industry best practices. In 2021, we’ll invest more than $300 million into safety projects, including an initial $66 million to create technology that will help prevent collisions of forklifts and other types of industrial vehicles.

我们在亚马逊雇佣了6200名安全专家。他们利用安全科学来解决复杂的问题,建立新的行业最佳实践。到2021年,我们将在安全项目上投资3亿多美元,其中包括最初的6600万美元,用于开发有助于防止叉车和其他类型工业车辆碰撞的技术。

When we lead, others follow. Two and a half years ago, when we set a $15 minimum wage for our hourly employees, we did so because we wanted to lead on wages – not just run with the pack – and because we believed it was the right thing to do. A recent paper by economists at the University of California-Berkeley and Brandeis University analyzed the impact of our decision to raise our minimum starting pay to $15 per hour. Their assessment reflects what we’ve heard from employees, their families, and the communities they live in.

当我们领导时,其他人会跟随。两年半以前,当我们为小时工设定15美元的最低工资时,我们这样做是因为我们希望在工资方面发挥领导作用——而不仅仅是随大流——也因为我们相信这样做是正确的。加州大学伯克利分校和布兰戴斯大学的经济学家最近发表了一篇论文,分析了我们决定将最低起薪提高到每小时15美元的影响。他们的评估反映了我们从员工、他们的家人以及他们所生活的社区那里听到的。

Our increase in starting wage boosted local economies across the country by benefiting not only our own employees but also other workers in the same community. The study showed that our pay raise resulted in a 4.7% increase in the average hourly wage among other employers in the same labor market.

我们提高起步工资,不仅使我们自己的雇员受益,而且使同一社区的其他工人受益,从而推动了全国各地的地方经济。研究表明,在同一劳动力市场上,我们的加薪导致其他雇主的平均小时工资上涨了4.7% 。

And we’re not done leading. If we want to be Earth’s Best Employer, we shouldn’t settle for 94% of employees saying they would recommend Amazon to a friend as a place to work. We have to aim for 100%. And we’ll do that by continuing to lead on wages, on benefits, on upskilling opportunities, and in other ways that we will figure out over time.

我们的领导还没有结束。如果我们想成为地球上最好的雇主,我们不应该满足于94% 的员工说他们会推荐亚马逊给朋友作为工作的地方。我们的目标必须是100% 。我们将继续在工资、福利、技能提升机会等方面发挥领导作用,以及其他一些我们会逐渐发现的方面。

If any shareowners are concerned that Earth’s Best Employer and Earth’s Safest Place to Work might dilute our focus on Earth’s Most Customer-Centric Company, let me set your mind at ease. Think of it this way. If we can operate two businesses as different as consumer ecommerce and AWS, and do both at the highest level, we can certainly do the same with these two vision statements. In fact, I’m confident they will reinforce each other.

如果任何股民担心地球上最好的雇主和地球上最安全的工作场所可能会削弱我们对地球上最以客户为中心的公司的关注,让我放心。这么想吧。如果我们能够像消费者电子商务和 AWS 一样经营两个不同的业务,并且在最高层面上做到这两点,我们当然可以对这两个愿景声明做同样的事情。事实上,我相信他们会互相加强。

The Climate Pledge

气候承诺

In an earlier draft of this letter, I started this section with arguments and examples designed to demonstrate that human-induced climate change is real. But, bluntly, I think we can stop saying that now. You don’t have to say that photosynthesis is real, or make the case that gravity is real, or that water boils at 100 degrees Celsius at sea level. These things are simply true, as is the reality of climate change.

在这封信的早期草稿中,我用论据和例子开始了本节,旨在证明人类引起的气候变化是真实存在的。但坦率地说,我认为我们现在可以停止这样说。你不必说光合作用是真实存在的,或者证明重力是真实存在的,或者证明水在海平面100摄氏度时就会沸腾。这些都是事实,气候变化的现实也是如此。

Not long ago, most people believed that it would be good to address climate change, but they also thought it would cost a lot and would threaten jobs, competitiveness, and economic growth. We now know better. Smart action on climate change will not only stop bad things from happening, it will also make our economy more efficient, help drive technological change, and reduce risks. Combined, these can lead to more and better jobs, healthier and happier children, more productive workers, and a more prosperous future. This doesn’t mean it will be easy. It won’t be. The coming decade will be decisive. The economy in 2030 will need to be vastly different from what it is today, and Amazon plans to be at the heart of the change. We launched The Climate Pledge together with Global Optimism in September 2019 because we wanted to help drive this positive revolution. We need to be part of a growing team of corporations that understand the imperatives and the opportunities of the 21st century.

不久前,大多数人认为应对气候变化是有益的,但他们也认为这将花费很多,并将威胁就业、竞争力和经济增长。我们现在更清楚了。在气候变化问题上采取明智的行动,不仅可以阻止不好的事情发生,还可以提高我们的经济效率,推动技术变革,降低风险。综合起来,这些可以带来更多更好的工作,更健康更快乐的孩子,更有生产力的工人,以及更繁荣的未来。这并不意味着它会很容易。不会的。未来十年将是决定性的。2030年的经济需要与现在有很大的不同,亚马逊计划成为变革的核心。我们在2019年9月与全球乐观主义一起发起了气候承诺,因为我们想帮助推动这场积极的革命。我们需要成为一个日益壮大的企业团队的一员,这个团队理解21世纪的当务之急和机遇。

Now, less than two years later, 53 companies representing almost every sector of the economy have signed The Climate Pledge. Signatories such as Best Buy, IBM, Infosys, Mercedes-Benz, Microsoft, Siemens, and Verizon have committed to achieve net-zero carbon in their worldwide businesses by 2040, 10 years ahead of the Paris Agreement. The Pledge also requires them to measure and report greenhouse gas emissions on a regular basis; implement decarbonization strategies through real business changes and innovations; and neutralize any remaining emissions with additional, quantifiable, real, permanent, and socially beneficial offsets. Credible, quality offsets are precious, and we should reserve them to compensate for economic activities where low-carbon alternatives don’t exist.

现在,不到两年之后,代表几乎所有经济部门的53家公司签署了《气候承诺》。百思买(Best Buy)、 IBM、印孚瑟斯(Infosys)、梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)、微软(Microsoft)、西门子(Siemens)和威瑞森(Verizon)等签约公司已承诺,到2040年,在《巴黎协定》(Paris Agreement)签署前10年,在全球范围内实现零碳排放。该承诺还要求他们定期测量和报告温室气体排放量; 通过真正的商业变革和创新实施脱碳战略; 用额外的、可量化的、真实的、永久的和对社会有益的补偿来中和剩余的排放量。可靠、高质量的补偿是宝贵的,我们应该保留这些补偿,以补偿那些不存在低碳替代品的经济活动。

The Climate Pledge signatories are making meaningful, tangible, and ambitious commitments. Uber has a goal of operating as a zero-emission platform in Canada, Europe, and the U.S. by 2030, and Henkel plans to source 100% of the electricity it uses for production from renewable sources. Amazon is making progress toward our own goal of 100% renewable energy by 2025, five years ahead of our initial 2030 target. Amazon is the largest corporate buyer of renewable energy in the world. We have 62 utility-scale wind and solar projects and 125 solar rooftops on fulfillment and sort centers around the globe. These projects have the capacity to generate over 6.9 gigawatts and deliver more than 20 million megawatt-hours of energy annually.

气候承诺的签署者正在做出有意义的、切实的和雄心勃勃的承诺。优步的目标是到2030年在加拿大、欧洲和美国成为一个零排放的平台,汉高公司计划100% 使用可再生能源生产的电力。亚马逊正朝着到2025年实现100% 可再生能源的目标前进,比我们最初的2030年目标提前了5年。亚马逊是世界上最大的可再生能源企业买家。我们有62个公用事业规模的风能和太阳能项目,以及125个太阳能屋顶在全球各地的实施和分类中心。这些项目的产能超过6.9千兆瓦,年产能超过2000万兆瓦时。

Transportation is a major component of Amazon’s business operations and the toughest part of our plan to meet net-zero carbon by 2040. To help rapidly accelerate the market for electric vehicle technology, and to help all companies transition to greener technologies, we invested more than $1 billion in Rivian – and ordered 100,000 electric delivery vans from the company. We’ve also partnered with Mahindra in India and Mercedes-Benz in Europe. These custom electric delivery vehicles from Rivian are already operational, and they first hit the road in Los Angeles this past February. Ten thousand new vehicles will be on the road as early as next year, and all 100,000 vehicles will be on the road by 2030 – saving millions of metric tons of carbon. A big reason we want companies to join The Climate Pledge is to signal to the marketplace that businesses should start inventing and developing new technologies that signatories need to make good on the Pledge. Our purchase of 100,000 Rivian electric vans is a perfect example.

交通运输是亚马逊商业运营的重要组成部分,也是我们到2040年实现零碳排放计划中最艰难的部分。为了帮助快速加速电动汽车技术市场的发展,并帮助所有公司向更环保的技术过渡,我们在 Rivian 投资了超过10亿美元,并向该公司订购了10万辆电动运货车。我们还与印度的 Mahindra 和欧洲的梅赛德斯-奔驰合作。这些来自 Rivian 的定制电动运输车已经投入使用,今年二月份首次在洛杉矶上路。最早明年将有1万辆新车上路,到2030年,所有10万辆车都将上路,这将节省数百万吨的碳排放。我们希望企业加入气候承诺的一个重要原因是向市场发出信号,企业应该开始发明和开发新技术,签署者需要这些技术来实现承诺。我们购买的10万辆 Rivian 电动面包车就是一个很好的例子。

To further accelerate investment in new technologies needed to build a zero-carbon economy, we introduced the Climate Pledge Fund last June. The investment program started with $2 billion to invest in visionary companies that aim to facilitate the transition to a low-carbon economy. Amazon has already announced investments in CarbonCure Technologies, Pachama, Redwood Materials, Rivian, Turntide Technologies, ZeroAvia, and Infinium – and these are just some of the innovative companies we hope will build the zero-carbon economy of the future.

为了进一步加快对建立零碳经济所需的新技术的投资,我们在去年6月推出了气候承诺基金。这个投资项目最初投资了20亿美元,用于投资有远见的公司,目的是促进向低碳经济的过渡。亚马逊已经宣布投资 CarbonCure Technologies、 Pachama、红木材料、 Rivian、 Turntide Technologies、 ZeroAvia 和 Infinium ——这些只是我们希望建立未来零碳经济的创新公司中的一部分。

I have also personally allocated $10 billion to provide grants to help catalyze the systemic change we will need in the coming decade. We’ll be supporting leading scientists, activists, NGOs, environmental justice organizations, and others working to fight climate change and protect the natural world. Late last year, I made my first round of grants to 16 organizations working on innovative and needle-moving solutions. It’s going to take collective action from big companies, small companies, nation states, global organizations, and individuals, and I’m excited to be part of this journey and optimistic that humanity can come together to solve this challenge.

我还亲自拨款100亿美元,提供赠款,帮助促进我们在未来十年将需要的系统性变革。我们将支持领先的科学家、活动家、非政府组织、环境正义组织和其他致力于对抗气候变化和保护自然世界的人。去年年底,我向16个致力于创新和推进解决方案的组织提供了第一轮资助。大公司、小公司、民族国家、全球性组织和个人将采取集体行动,我很高兴能参与这次旅程,并乐观地相信人类能够团结起来解决这一挑战。

Differentiation is Survival and the Universe Wants You to be Typical

差异化就是生存,宇宙要你成为典型

This is my last annual shareholder letter as the CEO of Amazon, and I have one last thing of utmost importance I feel compelled to teach. I hope all Amazonians take it to heart.

这是我作为亚马逊首席执行官的最后一封年度股东信,我觉得有必要教授最重要的最后一件事。我希望所有的亚马逊人都能牢记这一点。

Here is a passage from Richard Dawkins’ (extraordinary) book The Blind Watchmaker. It’s about a basic fact of biology.

这里有一段来自 Richard Dawkins 的著作《盲眼钟表匠,是关于生物学的一个基本事实。





“Staving off death is a thing that you have to work at. Left to itself – and that is what it is when it dies – the body tends to revert to a state of equilibrium with its environment. If you measure some quantity such as the temperature, the acidity, the water content or the electrical potential in a living body, you will typically find that it is markedly different from the corresponding measure in the surroundings. Our bodies, for instance, are usually hotter than our surroundings, and in cold climates they have to work hard to maintain the differential. When we die the work stops, the temperature differential starts to disappear, and we end up the same temperature as our surroundings. Not all animals work so hard to avoid coming into equilibrium with their surrounding temperature, but all animals do some comparable work. For instance, in a dry country, animals and plants work to maintain the fluid content of their cells, work against a natural tendency for water to flow from them into the dry outside world. If they fail they die. More generally, if living things didn’t work actively to prevent it, they would eventually merge into their surroundings, and cease to exist as autonomous beings. That is what happens when they die.”

“避免死亡是你必须努力的事情。任其自生自灭——这就是它死后的样子——身体倾向于恢复到与环境平衡的状态。如果你测量一些数据,比如温度、酸度、水含量或者生物体内的电势,你通常会发现它与周围环境中的相应数据有明显的不同。例如,我们的身体通常比我们周围的环境更热,在寒冷的气候下,他们必须努力工作来维持这种差异。当我们死去的时候,功停止了,温差开始消失,我们最终的温度和我们周围的环境一样。并不是所有的动物都如此努力地避免与周围温度达到平衡,但是所有的动物都做一些类似的工作。例如,在一个干燥的国家,动物和植物努力保持细胞内的液体含量,抵制水从它们身上流入干燥的外部世界的自然趋势。如果他们失败了,他们就会死。更广泛地说,如果生物没有积极地阻止它,它们最终会融入周围环境,不再作为独立的生物存在。这就是他们死后的下场。”

While the passage is not intended as a metaphor, it’s nevertheless a fantastic one, and very relevant to Amazon. I would argue that it’s relevant to all companies and all institutions and to each of our individual lives too. In what ways does the world pull at you in an attempt to make you normal? How much work does it take to maintain your distinctiveness? To keep alive the thing or things that make you special?

虽然这篇文章并不是一个比喻,但它仍然是一个很棒的比喻,与亚马逊非常相关。我认为,它与所有公司、所有机构以及我们每个人的生活都有关系。这个世界以什么样的方式吸引着你,试图让你变得正常?要保持你的独特性需要多少工作?让那些让你与众不同的东西活下去?

I know a happily married couple who have a running joke in their relationship. Not infrequently, the husband looks at the wife with faux distress and says to her, “Can’t you just be normal?” They both smile and laugh, and of course the deep truth is that her distinctiveness is something he loves about her. But, at the same time, it’s also true that things would often be easier – take less energy – if we were a little more normal.

我认识一对幸福的已婚夫妇,他们的关系中有一个流行的笑话。丈夫经常假装痛苦地看着妻子,对她说: “你就不能正常一点吗?”他们都笑了,当然,最深刻的事实是,他喜欢她与众不同的特点。但与此同时,如果我们能稍微正常一点,事情往往会变得更简单——少消耗能量。

This phenomenon happens at all scale levels. Democracies are not normal. Tyranny is the historical norm. If we stopped doing all of the continuous hard work that is needed to maintain our distinctiveness in that regard, we would quickly come into equilibrium with tyranny.

这种现象发生在所有规模的水平。民主是不正常的。暴政是历史规范。如果我们停止为保持我们在这方面的独特性所需要的所有持续的艰苦工作,我们将很快与暴政达成平衡。

We all know that distinctiveness – originality – is valuable. We are all taught to “be yourself.” What I’m really asking you to do is to embrace and be realistic about how much energy it takes to maintain that distinctiveness. The world wants you to be typical – in a thousand ways, it pulls at you. Don’t let it happen.

我们都知道独特性——原创性——是有价值的。我们都被教导要“做自己”我真正要求你做的是拥抱和现实的多少精力,它需要保持这种独特性。这个世界希望你成为一个典型——无论从哪个方面来说,它都在吸引着你。不要让它发生。

You have to pay a price for your distinctiveness, and it’s worth it. The fairy tale version of “be yourself” is that all the pain stops as soon as you allow your distinctiveness to shine. That version is misleading. Being yourself is worth it, but don’t expect it to be easy or free. You’ll have to put energy into it continuously.

你必须为你的独特性付出代价,这是值得的。童话版本的“做你自己”是所有的痛苦停止,只要你让你的独特性闪耀。这种说法具有误导性。做你自己是值得的,但不要期望它是容易的或免费的。你必须不断地投入精力。

The world will always try to make Amazon more typical – to bring us into equilibrium with our environment. It will take continuous effort, but we can and must be better than that.

世界总是试图使亚马逊更加典型——使我们与我们的环境达到平衡。这需要不断的努力,但是我们可以而且必须做得更好。

* * *

As always, I attach our 1997 shareholder letter. It concluded with this: “We at Amazon.com are grateful to our customers for their business and trust, to each other for our hard work, and to our shareholders for their support and encouragement.” That hasn’t changed a bit. I want to especially thank Andy Jassy for agreeing to take on the CEO role. It’s a hard job with a lot of responsibility. Andy is brilliant and has the highest of high standards. I guarantee you that Andy won’t let the universe make us typical. He will muster the energy needed to keep alive in us what makes us special. That won’t be easy, but it is critical. I also predict it will be satisfying and oftentimes fun. Thank you, Andy.

一如既往,我随函附上我们1997年的股东函。文章的结尾是这样的: “我们亚马逊感谢我们的客户给予我们的业务和信任,感谢我们的辛勤工作,感谢我们的股东给予我们的支持和鼓励。”这一点没有改变。我要特别感谢安迪 · 贾西同意担任首席执行官。这是一项艰巨的工作,责任重大。安迪才华横溢,有最高的标准。我向你保证安迪不会让宇宙把我们变成典型。他会聚集所需的能量,让我们保持活力,让我们与众不同。这并不容易,但至关重要。我还预测它将是令人满意的,而且常常是有趣的。谢谢,安迪。

To all of you: be kind, be original, create more than you consume, and never, never, never let the universe smooth you into your surroundings. It remains Day 1.

对你们所有人: 要善良,要有独创性,创造比你消耗更多的东西,永远,永远,永远,永远不要让宇宙使你融入你的环境。现在还是第一天。

Sincerely,

真诚的,

Jeffrey P. Bezos
Founder and Chief Executive Officer
Amazon.com, Inc.

杰夫·贝索斯创始人兼首席执行官。

我的观点

这是解读的最后一封信了,也是第24封信。 2021年的信可能还有一段时间才会发出来,也有可能不会有了,这是贝索斯的最后一封信。

贝索斯先回顾了亚马逊上市这24年取得的成就。

  1. 我们雇佣了500,000名员工,现在全世界直接雇佣了130万名员工。
  2. 我们在全球拥有超过2亿的会员。超过190万家中小企业在我们店里销售,占我们零售额的近60% 。
  3. 用户已经将超过1亿台智能家居设备连接到 Alexa 上。
  4. 亚马逊网络服务为数以百万计的用户提供服务,到2020年年化运营率达到500亿美元。
  5. 有了 Prime、 Marketplace、 Alexa 和 AWS。

贝索斯因为所持有的股份成为了世界首富,但是股民也成功了。 亚马逊创造了1.6万亿美元的财富,1.4万亿美元是除贝索斯的人持有的,股票的增值让很多人改善了他们的生活。

他还说,你需要创造比你消耗更多,才能在事业和生活上成功。你的目标应该是为每一个与你互动的人创造价值。不创造价值的企业活不长。

独特性

贝索斯引用了一段话,来自 Richard Dawkins 的著作《盲眼钟表匠》如下:

“避免死亡是你必须努力的事情。任其自生自灭——这就是它死后的样子——身体倾向于恢复到与环境平衡的状态。如果你测量一些数据,比如温度、酸度、水含量或者生物体内的电势,你通常会发现它与周围环境中的相应数据有明显的不同。例如,我们的身体通常比我们周围的环境更热,在寒冷的气候下,他们必须努力工作来维持这种差异。当我们死去的时候,功停止了,温差开始消失,我们最终的温度和我们周围的环境一样。并不是所有的动物都如此努力地避免与周围温度达到平衡,但是所有的动物都做一些类似的工作。例如,在一个干燥的国家,动物和植物努力保持细胞内的液体含量,抵制水从它们身上流入干燥的外部世界的自然趋势。如果他们失败了,他们就会死。更广泛地说,如果生物没有积极地阻止它,它们最终会融入周围环境,不再作为独立的生物存在。这就是他们死后的下场。”

意思就是作为生物要维持差异,就必须努力。 人想做自己,都需要更多的努力,来保持这种独特性。

为了你的独特性付出努力,是很值得的,但是你必须不断的投入精力。

愿你做自己。

第二十四封信:要善良,要有独创性,要创造更多的价值”的一个响应

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