To our shareowners:
The American Customer Satisfaction Index recently announced the results of its annual survey, and for the 8th year in a row customers ranked Amazon #1. The United Kingdom has a similar index, The U.K. Customer Satisfaction Index, put out by the Institute of Customer Service. For the 5th time in a row Amazon U.K. ranked #1 in that survey. Amazon was also just named the #1 business on LinkedIn’s 2018 Top Companies list, which ranks the most sought after places to work for professionals in the United States. And just a few weeks ago, Harris Poll released its annual Reputation Quotient, which surveys over 25,000 consumers on a broad range of topics from workplace environment to social responsibility to products and services, and for the 3rd year in a row Amazon ranked #1.
美国消费者满意度指数最近公布了其年度调查结果，连续八年将Amazon排在第一名。英国的消费者服务协会（Institute of Customer Service）公布了类似的指数，即「英国消费者满意度指数」，英国Amazon连续第五次在调查中排名第一。Amazon刚刚被LinkedIn评为2018年最佳公司排行榜第一名，此榜单旨在评选美国专业人士心目中的最受欢迎公司。就在几周前，Harris Poll发布了商誉商数（Reputation Quotient），此报告对超过2.5万多名消费者进行调查，主题包含工作环境、社会责任和产品服务，Amazon连续三年在排行榜排名第一。
Congratulations and thank you to the now over 560,000 Amazonians who come to work every day with unrelenting customer obsession, ingenuity, and commitment to operational excellence. And on behalf of Amazonians everywhere, I want to extend a huge thank you to customers. It’s incredibly energizing for us to see your responses to these surveys.
One thing I love about customers is that they are divinely discontent. Their expectations are never static – they go up. It’s human nature. We didn’t ascend from our hunter-gatherer days by being satisfied. People have a voracious appetite for a better way, and yesterday’s ‘wow’ quickly becomes today’s ‘ordinary’. I see that cycle of improvement happening at a faster rate than ever before. It may be because customers have such easy access to more information than ever before – in only a few seconds and with a couple taps on their phones, customers can read reviews, compare prices from multiple retailers, see whether something’s in stock, find out how fast it will ship or be available for pick-up, and more. These examples are from retail, but I sense that the same customer empowerment phenomenon is happening broadly across everything we do at Amazon and most other industries as well. You cannot rest on your laurels in this world. Customers won’t have it.
How do you stay ahead of ever-rising customer expectations? There’s no single way to do it – it’s a combination of many things. But high standards (widely deployed and at all levels of detail) are certainly a big part of it. We’ve had some successes over the years in our quest to meet the high expectations of customers. We’ve also had billions of dollars’ worth of failures along the way. With those experiences as backdrop, I’d like to share with you the essentials of what we’ve learned (so far) about high standards inside an organization.
Intrinsic or Teachable?
First, there’s a foundational question: are high standards intrinsic or teachable? If you take me on your basketball team, you can teach me many things, but you can’t teach me to be taller. Do we first and foremost need to select for “high standards” people? If so, this letter would need to be mostly about hiring practices, but I don’t think so. I believe high standards are teachable. In fact, people are pretty good at learning high standards simply through exposure. High standards are contagious. Bring a new person onto a high standards team, and they’ll quickly adapt. The opposite is also true. If low standards prevail, those too will quickly spread. And though exposure works well to teach high standards, I believe you can accelerate that rate of learning by articulating a few core principles of high standards, which I hope to share in this letter.
Universal or Domain Specific?
Another important question is whether high standards are universal or domain specific. In other words, if you have high standards in one area, do you automatically have high standards elsewhere? I believe high standards are domain specific, and that you have to learn high standards separately in every arena of interest. When I started Amazon, I had high standards on inventing, on customer care, and (thankfully) on hiring. But I didn’t have high standards on operational process: how to keep fixed problems fixed, how to eliminate defects at the root, how to inspect processes, and much more. I had to learn and develop high standards on all of that (my colleagues were my tutors). Understanding this point is important because it keeps you humble. You can consider yourself a person of high standards in general and still have debilitating blind spots. There can be whole arenas of endeavor where you may not even know that your standards are low or non-existent, and certainly not world class. It’s critical to be open to that likelihood.
Recognition and Scope
What do you need to achieve high standards in a particular domain area? First, you have to be able to recognize what good looks like in that domain. Second, you must have realistic expectations for how hard it should be (how much work it will take) to achieve that result – the scope.
Let me give you two examples. One is a sort of toy illustration but it makes the point clearly, and another is a real one that comes up at Amazon all the time.
A close friend recently decided to learn to do a perfect free-standing handstand. No leaning against a wall. Not for just a few seconds. Instagram good. She decided to start her journey by taking a handstand workshop at her yoga studio. She then practiced for a while but wasn’t getting the results she wanted. So, she hired a handstand coach. Yes, I know what you’re thinking, but evidently this is an actual thing that exists. In the very first lesson, the coach gave her some wonderful advice. “Most people,” he said, “think that if they work hard, they should be able to master a handstand in about two weeks. The reality is that it takes about six months of daily practice. If you think you should be able to do it in two weeks, you’re just going to end up quitting.” Unrealistic beliefs on scope – often hidden and undiscussed – kill high standards. To achieve high standards yourself or as part of a team, you need to form and proactively communicate realistic beliefs about how hard something is going to be – something this coach understood well.
We don’t do PowerPoint (or any other slide-oriented) presentations at Amazon. Instead, we write narratively structured six-page memos. We silently read one at the beginning of each meeting in a kind of “study hall.” Not surprisingly, the quality of these memos varies widely. Some have the clarity of angels singing. They are brilliant and thoughtful and set up the meeting for high-quality discussion. Sometimes they come in at the other end of the spectrum.
In the handstand example, it’s pretty straightforward to recognize high standards. It wouldn’t be difficult to lay out in detail the requirements of a well-executed handstand, and then you’re either doing it or you’re not. The writing example is very different. The difference between a great memo and an average one is much squishier. It would be extremely hard to write down the detailed requirements that make up a great memo. Nevertheless, I find that much of the time, readers react to great memos very similarly. They know it when they see it. The standard is there, and it is real, even if it’s not easily describable.
Here’s what we’ve figured out. Often, when a memo isn’t great, it’s not the writer’s inability to recognize the high standard, but instead a wrong expectation on scope: they mistakenly believe a high-standards, six-page memo can be written in one or two days or even a few hours, when really it might take a week or more! They’re trying to perfect a handstand in just two weeks, and we’re not coaching them right. The great memos are written and re-written, shared with colleagues who are asked to improve the work, set aside for a couple of days, and then edited again with a fresh mind. They simply can’t be done in a day or two. The key point here is that you can improve results through the simple act of teaching scope – that a great memo probably should take a week or more.
Beyond recognizing the standard and having realistic expectations on scope, how about skill? Surely to write a world class memo, you have to be an extremely skilled writer? Is it another required element? In my view, not so much, at least not for the individual in the context of teams. The football coach doesn’t need to be able to throw, and a film director doesn’t need to be able to act. But they both do need to recognize high standards for those things and teach realistic expectations on scope. Even in the example of writing a six-page memo, that’s teamwork. Someone on the team needs to have the skill, but it doesn’t have to be you. (As a side note, by tradition at Amazon, authors’ names never appear on the memos – the memo is from the whole team.)
Benefits of High Standards
Building a culture of high standards is well worth the effort, and there are many benefits. Naturally and most obviously, you’re going to build better products and services for customers – this would be reason enough! Perhaps a little less obvious: people are drawn to high standards – they help with recruiting and retention. More subtle: a culture of high standards is protective of all the “invisible” but crucial work that goes on in every company. I’m talking about the work that no one sees. The work that gets done when no one is watching. In a high standards culture, doing that work well is its own reward – it’s part of what it means to be a professional.
And finally, high standards are fun! Once you’ve tasted high standards, there’s no going back.
So, the four elements of high standards as we see it: they are teachable, they are domain specific, you must recognize them, and you must explicitly coach realistic scope. For us, these work at all levels of detail. Everything from writing memos to whole new, clean-sheet business initiatives. We hope they help you too.
Insist on the Highest Standards Leaders have relentlessly high standards – many people may think these standards are unreasonably high. — from the Amazon Leadership Principles
The high standards our leaders strive for have served us well. And while I certainly can’t do a handstand myself, I’m extremely proud to share some of the milestones we hit last year, each of which represents the fruition of many years of collective effort. We take none of them for granted.
- Prime – 13 years post-launch, we have exceeded 100 million paid Prime members globally. In 2017 Amazon shipped more than five billion items with Prime worldwide, and more new members joined Prime than in any previous year – both worldwide and in the U.S. Members in the U.S. now receive unlimited free two-day shipping on over 100 million different items. We expanded Prime to Mexico, Singapore, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, and introduced Business Prime Shipping in the U.S. and Germany. We keep making Prime shipping faster as well, with Prime Free Same-Day and Prime Free One-Day delivery now in more than 8,000 cities and towns. Prime Now is available in more than 50 cities worldwide across nine countries. Prime Day 2017 was our biggest global shopping event ever (until surpassed by Cyber Monday), with more new Prime members joining Prime than any other day in our history.
- Prime－推出13年后，我们在全球已拥有超过1亿名付费Prime会员。2017年，Amazon在全球向会员配送了超过50亿件商品，新加入Prime的会员数量超过以往任何一年（无论是以全球或美国来说都是）。美国会员现在可以不受限制地享受两天内到货的免费服务，可配送超过1亿种不同商品。我们将Prime拓展到墨西哥、新加坡、荷兰和卢森堡，并在美国和德国引入了Business Prime Shipping。我们也不断提高Prime的配送速度，在超过8000个城镇提供Prime Free当日到货和Prime Free一日到货服务。在全球9个国家，超过50个城市中提供Prime Now。Prime Day 2017是我们有史以来最大的全球购物活动（直到被Cyber Monday超过），与历史上任何一天相比，Prime新会员的人数是最多的。
- AWS – It’s exciting to see Amazon Web Services, a $20 billion revenue run rate business, accelerate its already healthy growth. AWS has also accelerated its pace of innovation – especially in new areas such as machine learning and artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, and serverless computing. In 2017, AWS announced more than 1,400 significant services and features, including Amazon SageMaker, which radically changes the accessibility and ease of use for everyday developers to build sophisticated machine learning models. Tens of thousands of customers are also using a broad range of AWS machine learning services, with active users increasing more than 250 percent in the last year, spurred by the broad adoption of Amazon SageMaker. And in November, we held our sixth re:Invent conference with more than 40,000 attendees and over 60,000 streaming participants.
- AWS－令人振奋的是，营业额达200亿美元的AWS再次加速增长。AWS加快了创新步伐，尤其是在机器学习、人工智能、物联网和无服务器计算等新领域。2017年，AWS推出了超过1400种重要服务和功能，包括Amazon SageMaker，此服务从根本上改善了开发人员构建复杂的机器学习模型的易用性。数以万计的客户使用AWS机器学习服务，由于Amazon SageMaker的广泛采用，去年活跃用户增长超过250％。11月，我们举办了第六届re：Invent大会，与会者超过4万人，在线观看者超过6万名。
- Marketplace – In 2017, for the first time in our history, more than half of the units sold on Amazon worldwide were from our third-party sellers, including small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs). Over 300,000 U.S.-based SMBs started selling on Amazon in 2017, and Fulfillment by Amazon shipped billions of items for SMBs worldwide. Customers ordered more than 40 million items from SMBs worldwide during Prime Day 2017, growing their sales by more than 60 percent over Prime Day 2016. Our Global Selling program (enabling SMBs to sell products across national borders) grew by over 50% in 2017 and cross-border ecommerce by SMBs now represents more than 25% of total thirdparty sales.
- Marketplace－2017年，史上第一次在全球范围内售出的商品中有超过一半来自第三方卖家，包括中小企业（SMB）。2017年，超过30万个美国中小型企业在Amazon上销售商品，Amaozon会为全球中小型企业运送了数十亿件商品。2017年Prime Day期间，消费者从中小型企业订购了超过4千万件商品，与2016年Prime Day相比，销售额增长超过60％。全球销售计划（Global Selling，使中小型企业能够跨国贩卖商品）在2017年增长超过50％，如今中小企业的跨境电商交易额占第三方卖家总销售额25％以上。
- Alexa – Customer embrace of Alexa continues, with Alexa-enabled devices among the best-selling items across all of Amazon. We’re seeing extremely strong adoption by other companies and developers that want to create their own experiences with Alexa. There are now more than 30,000 skills for Alexa from outside developers, and customers can control more than 4,000 smart home devices from 1,200 unique brands with Alexa. The foundations of Alexa continue to get smarter every day too. We’ve developed and implemented an on-device fingerprinting technique, which keeps your device from waking up when it hears an Alexa commercial on TV. (This technology ensured that our Alexa Super Bowl commercial didn’t wake up millions of devices.) Far-field speech recognition (already very good) has improved by 15% over the last year; and in the U.S., U.K., and Germany, we’ve improved Alexa’s spoken language understanding by more than 25% over the last 12 months through enhancements in Alexa’s machine learning components and the use of semi-supervised learning techniques. (These semi-supervised learning techniques reduced the amount of labeled data needed to achieve the same accuracy improvement by 40 times!) Finally, we’ve dramatically reduced the amount of time required to teach Alexa new languages by using machine translation and transfer learning techniques, which allows us to serve customers in more countries (like India and Japan).
- Amazon devices – 2017 was our best year yet for hardware sales. Customers bought tens of millions of Echo devices, and Echo Dot and Fire TV Stick with Alexa were the best-selling products across all of Amazon – across all categories and all manufacturers. Customers bought twice as many Fire TV Sticks and Kids Edition Fire Tablets this holiday season versus last year. 2017 marked the release of our all-new Echo with an improved design, better sound, and a lower price; Echo Plus with a built-in smart home hub; and Echo Spot, which is compact and beautiful with a circular screen. We released our next generation Fire TV, featuring 4K Ultra HD and HDR; and the Fire HD 10 Tablet, with 1080p Full HD display. And we celebrated the 10th anniversary of Kindle by releasing the all-new Kindle Oasis, our most advanced reader ever. It’s waterproof – take it in the bathtub – with a bigger 7” high-resolution 300 ppi display and has built-in audio so you can also listen to your books with Audible.
- Amazon devices－2017年是我们迄今为止硬件销售表现最好的一年。客户购买了数以千万计的Echo设备，而带有Alexa的Echo Dot和Fire TV Stick是Amazon所有类别和所有制造商中最畅销的商品。与去年同期相比，客户在此次假期中购买的Fire TV Stick和Kids Edition Fire Tablet的数量是去年的两倍。2017年标志着我们全新的Echo上市，改进的设计、更好的声音和更低的价。具备智能家居集线器的Echo Plus；采用圆形屏幕、小巧美观的Echo Spot。我们推出具有4K Ultra HD和HDR功能的新一代Fire TV，以及具有1080p高清显示屏的Fire HD 10 Tablet。为了庆祝Kindle 10周年，我们推出了全新的Kindle Oasis，这是迄今为止最先进的阅读器。防水－所以你可以放在浴缸里。更大的高清显示屏－7英寸300 ppi。内置音频，因此你可以直接使用Audible听书。
- Prime Video – Prime Video continues to drive Prime member adoption and retention. In the last year we made Prime Video even better for customers by adding new, award-winning Prime Originals to the service, like The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel, winner of two Critics’ Choice Awards and two Golden Globes, and the Oscar-nominated movie The Big Sick. We’ve expanded our slate of programming across the globe, launching new seasons of Bosch and Sneaky Pete from the U.S., The Grand Tour from the U.K., and You Are Wanted from Germany, while adding new Sentosha shows from Japan, along with Breathe and the award-winning Inside Edge from India. Also this year, we expanded our Prime Channels offerings, adding CBS All Access in the U.S. and launching Channels in the U.K. and Germany. We debuted NFL Thursday Night Football on Prime Video, with more than 18 million total viewers over 11 games. In 2017, Prime Video Direct secured subscription video rights for more than 3,000 feature films and committed over $18 million in royalties to independent filmmakers and other rights holders. Looking forward, we’re also excited about our upcoming Prime Original series pipeline, which includes Tom Clancy’s Jack Ryan starring John Krasinski; King Lear, starring Anthony Hopkins and Emma Thompson; The Romanoffs, executive produced by Matt Weiner; Carnival Row starring Orlando Bloom and Cara Delevingne; Good Omens starring Jon Hamm; and Homecoming, executive produced by Sam Esmail and starring Julia Roberts in her first television series. We acquired the global television rights for a multi-season production of The Lord of the Rings, as well as Cortés, a miniseries based on the epic saga of Hernán Cortés from executive producer Steven Spielberg, starring Javier Bardem, and we look forward to beginning work on those shows this year.
- Prime Video－Prime Video继续推动Prime会员的拉新与留存。去年，我们新增了屡获殊荣的全新Prime原创作品，从而使Prime Video给用户更好的服务，例如获得两次广播影评人协会奖和两次金球奖的《The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel》，以及获得奥斯卡提名的《The Big Sick》。我们的节目编排遍及全球，包括美国的《Bosch》和《Sneaky Pete》、英国的《The Grand Tour》、德国的《You Are Wanted》、日本的《Sentosha》、印度的《Breathe》和屡获殊荣的《Inside Edge》。同样时，我们扩增了Prime Channel的内容，在美国增加了CBS All Access，并在英国和德国推出许多新频道。在Prime Video上首次播放NFL周四足球夜（Thursday Night Football），在11场比赛中总计有1800万观众观看。2017年，Prime Video Direct取得超过3000部视频的订阅版权，将会为独立电影制片人和其他版权持有者带来超过1800万美元的版税。展望未来，我们也对即将推出的Prime原创电视剧感到兴奋。Tom Clancy创作的《Jack Ryan》，将由John Krasinski主演。《King Lear》将由Anthony Hopkins和Emma Thompson主演。Matt Weiner制作的《Romanoffs》。《Carnival Row》由Orlando Bloom和Cara Delevingne主演。《Good Omens》由Jon Hamm主演。由Sam Esmail制作，并由Julia Roberts主演的电视剧《Homecoming》，这是Julia Roberts的第一部电视剧。我们取得几季电视剧《The Lord of the Rings》的全球电视转播权。由Steven Spielberg制作的《Cortés》是一部以《HernánCortés》的传奇故事为背景的迷你剧，由Javier Bardem主演。我们非常期待今年的作品。
- Amazon Music – Amazon Music continues to grow fast and now has tens of millions of paid customers. Amazon Music Unlimited, our on-demand, ad-free offering, expanded to more than 30 new countries in 2017, and membership has more than doubled over the past six months.
- Amazon Music－Amazon音乐持续增长，现在拥有数千万付费会员。我们的按需计价无广告产品Amazon Music Unlimited，在2017年扩展市场到30多个国家，过去六个月中，会员数增加了一倍以上。
- Fashion – Amazon has become the destination for tens of millions of customers to shop for fashion. In 2017, we introduced our first fashion-oriented Prime benefit, Prime Wardrobe – a new service that brings the fitting room directly to the homes of Prime members so they can try on the latest styles before they buy. We introduced Nike and UGG on Amazon along with new celebrity collections by Drew Barrymore and Dwyane Wade, as well as dozens of new private brands, like Goodthreads and Core10. We’re also continuing to enable thousands of designers and artists to offer their exclusive designs and prints on demand through Merch by Amazon. We finished 2017 with the launch of our interactive shopping experience with Calvin Klein, including pop-up shops, on-site product customization, and fitting rooms with Alexa-controlled lighting, music, and more.
- Fashion－Amazon已经成为数千万顾客购买时尚名品的地方。2017年，我们推出了第一个时尚导向的Prime优惠－Prime Wardrobe。这是一项新服务，将未购买的商品直接送到Prime会员的住处，让消费者在家就可以试穿最新的款式。我们在Amazon上引入了Nike和UGG两个品牌、Drew Barrymore和Dwyane Wade的名人系列、Goodthreads和Core10等数十个新品牌。我们还将继续引入很多位设计师和艺术家，让他们能够透过Amazon Merch提供独家设计商品。我们在2017年与Calvin Klein推出互动购物体验，包括快闪店、现场产品订制以及由Alexa控制灯光音乐的试衣间。
- Whole Foods – When we closed our acquisition of Whole Foods Market last year, we announced our commitment to making high-quality, natural and organic food available for everyone, then immediately lowered prices on a selection of best-selling grocery staples, including avocados, organic brown eggs, and responsibly-farmed salmon. We followed this with a second round of price reductions in November, and our Prime member exclusive promotion broke Whole Foods’ all-time record for turkeys sold during the Thanksgiving season. In February, we introduced free two-hour delivery on orders over $35 for Prime members in select cities, followed by additional cities in March and April, and plan continued expansion across the U.S. throughout this year. We also expanded the benefits of the Amazon Prime Rewards Visa Card, enabling Prime members to get 5% back when shopping at Whole Foods Market. Beyond that, customers can purchase Whole Foods’ private label products like 365 Everyday Value on Amazon, purchase Echo and other Amazon devices in over a hundred Whole Foods stores, and pick-up or return Amazon packages at Amazon Lockers in hundreds of Whole Foods stores. We’ve also begun the technical work needed to recognize Prime members at the point of sale and look forward to offering more Prime benefits to Whole Foods shoppers once that work is completed.
- Whole Foods－去年我们收购了Whole Foods超市，并承诺未来将向所有人提供高质量、天然和有机食品，同时立即降低酪梨、有机鸡蛋、责任养殖的鲑鱼等畅销杂货。随后我们在11月进行了第二轮降价，我们推出Prime会员独家促销方案，打破了Whole Foods感恩节火鸡销量的的历史记录。2月，我们为部分城市的Prime会员提供两小时到货的免费配送服务，订单金额超过35美元即可使用。随后在3月和4月将服务拓展到其他城市，今年将在整个美国范围内继续拓展。我们还增加了Amazon Prime Rewards Visa卡的优惠，Prime会员在Whole Foods购物时可获得5％的现金返还。除此之外，客户还可以在Amazon上购买Whole Foods自有品牌产品，例如365 Everyday Value，也可以在一百多家Whole Foods中购买Echo和其他Amazon电子装置，在数百家Whole Foods中的Amazon Lockers取货或退货 。我们已开始着手将Prime会员从Whole Foods顾客中识别出来，以提供他们更多的Prime会员优惠。
- Amazon Go – Amazon Go, a new kind of store with no checkout required, opened to the public in January in Seattle. Since opening, we’ve been thrilled to hear many customers refer to their shopping experience as “magical.” What makes the magic possible is a custom-built combination of computer vision, sensor fusion, and deep learning, which come together to create Just Walk Out shopping. With JWO, customers are able to grab their favorite breakfast, lunch, dinner, snack, and grocery essentials more conveniently than ever before. Some of our top-selling items are not surprising – caffeinated beverages and water are popular – but our customers also love the Chicken Banh Mi sandwich, chocolate chip cookies, cut fruit, gummy bears, and our Amazon Meal Kits.
- Amazon Go－Amazon Go是一种无需结账的新型商店，1月在西雅图开放营业。开业以来，我们很高兴听到许多顾客称这样的购物体验为「神奇」。结合计算器视觉、传感器和深度学习，使这一切从魔术成为可能，创造出拿了就走的购物体验，我们称之为Just Walk Out Shopping。透过Just Walk Out Shopping，消费者取得自己喜欢的早餐、午餐、晚餐、点心和杂货会更加方便。我们的最畅销产品是－不足为奇的咖啡因饮料和水，但他们也喜欢Chicken Banh Mi三明治、巧克力曲奇饼干、水果、小熊软糖和我们的Amazon餐包。
- Treasure Truck – Treasure Truck expanded from a single truck in Seattle to a fleet of 35 trucks across 25 U.S. cities and 12 U.K. cities. Our bubble-blowing, music-pumping trucks fulfilled hundreds of thousands of orders, from porterhouse steaks to the latest Nintendo releases. Throughout the year, Treasure Truck also partnered with local communities to lift spirits and help those in need, including donating and delivering hundreds of car seats, thousands of toys, tens of thousands of socks, and many other essentials to community members needing relief, from those displaced by Hurricane Harvey, to the homeless, to kids needing holiday cheer.
- Treasure Truck－Treasure Truck从西雅图的一辆卡车起步，扩展为横跨25个美国城市、12个英国城市，总数35辆的卡车车队。我们的吹泡泡音乐泵车服务了数十万笔订单，从丁骨牛排到最新的任天堂游戏机。Treasure Truck与当地小区合作，振作人们的精神，帮助有需要的人。捐赠和运送数百个汽车座椅、数千个玩具、数万只袜子和许多必需品。给那些因哈维飓风而流离失所者、无家可归者和需要鼓励的孩子。
- India – http://Amazon.in is the fastest growing marketplace in India, and the most visited site on both desktop and mobile, according to comScore and SimilarWeb. The http://Amazon.in mobile shopping app was also the most downloaded shopping app in India in 2017, according to App Annie. Prime added more members in India in its first year than any previous geography in Amazon’s history. Prime selection in India now includes more than 40 million local products from third-party sellers, and Prime Video is investing in India original video content in a big way, including two recent premiers and over a dozen new shows in production.
- India－根据comScore和SimilarWeb的数据，Amazon印度站是印度增长最快的第三方卖家平台，也是PC和移动设备上流量最大的网站。根据App Annie的数据，Amazon购物App是2017年印度区下载量最多的购物App。在印度推出Prime会员的第一年度，Prime会员增长数就超过了Amazon历史上的任何地方的纪录。印度的Prime商品主要来自第三方卖家，超过4000万种当地商品。Prime Video正大量投资于印度的原创内容，包括两位主要人物和十多个新节目。
- Sustainability – We are committed to minimizing carbon emissions by optimizing our transportation network, improving product packaging, and enhancing energy efficiency in our operations, and we have a long-term goal to power our global infrastructure using 100% renewable energy. We recently launched Amazon Wind Farm Texas, our largest wind farm yet, which generates more than 1,000,000 megawatt hours of clean energy annually from over 100 turbines. We have plans to host solar energy systems at 50 fulfillment centers by 2020, and have launched 24 wind and solar projects across the U.S. with more than 29 additional projects to come. Together, Amazon’s renewable energy projects now produce enough clean energy to power over 330,000 homes annually. In 2017 we celebrated the 10-year anniversary of Frustration-Free Packaging, the first of a suite of sustainable packaging initiatives that have eliminated more than 244,000 tons of packaging materials over the past 10 years. In addition, in 2017 alone our programs significantly reduced packaging waste, eliminating the equivalent of 305 million shipping boxes. And across the world, Amazon is contracting with our service providers to launch our first low-pollution last-mile fleet. Already today, a portion of our European delivery fleet is comprised of low-pollution electric and natural gas vans and cars, and we have over 40 electric scooters and e-cargo bikes that complete local urban deliveries.
- Empowering Small Business – Millions of small and medium-sized businesses worldwide now sell their products through Amazon to reach new customers around the globe. SMBs selling on Amazon come from every state in the U.S., and from more than 130 different countries around the world. More than 140,000 SMBs surpassed $100,000 in sales on Amazon in 2017, and over a thousand independent authors surpassed $100,000 in royalties in 2017 through Kindle Direct Publishing.
- Empowering Small Business－现在，全球数以百万个的中小型企业透过Amazon贩卖商品，吸引全球新客户。在Amazon上销售的中小企业商品，来自美国的各个州和全球130多个的国家。 2017年，超过14万名中小型企业在Amazon上的销售额超过10万美元。同时，有1000多名独立创作者透过Kindle Direct Publishing的版权费赚到超过10万美元。
- Investment & Job Creation – Since 2011, we have invested over $150 billion worldwide in our fulfillment networks, transportation capabilities, and technology infrastructure, including AWS data centers. Amazon has created over 1.7 million direct and indirect jobs around the world. In 2017 alone, we directly created more than 130,000 new Amazon jobs, not including acquisitions, bringing our global employee base to over 560,000. Our new jobs cover a wide range of professions, from artificial intelligence scientists to packaging specialists to fulfillment center associates. In addition to these direct hires, we estimate that Amazon Marketplace has created 900,000 more jobs worldwide, and that Amazon’s investments have created an additional 260,000 jobs in areas like construction, logistics, and other professional services.
- Investment & Job Creation－自2011年以来，我们已在全球投资超过1500亿美元在配送网络、运输功能和基础设施（包括AWS数据中心）上。Amazon在全球直接或间接创造超过170万个工作机会。仅在2017年，我们就直接创造了超过13万个新的工作机会（不包括收购），我们的全球员工总数因此超过56万人。我们的新工作涵盖了领域很广泛，从人工智能科学家、包装专家到配送中心员工。除了这些直接聘雇人员，我们估计Amazon在全球间接创造了90万个个工作机会。Amazon在建筑、物流和其他专业服务的投资一共创造了26万个工作机会。
- Career Choice – One employee program we’re particularly proud of is Amazon Career Choice. For hourly associates with more than one year of tenure, we pre-pay 95% of tuition, fees, and textbooks (up to $12,000) for certificates and associate degrees in high-demand occupations such as aircraft mechanics, computer-aided design, machine tool technologies, medical lab technologies, and nursing. We fund education in areas that are in high demand and do so regardless of whether those skills are relevant to a career at Amazon. Globally more than 16,000 associates (including more than 12,000 in the U.S.) have joined Career Choice since the program launched in 2012. Career Choice is live in ten countries and expanding to South Africa, Costa Rica, and Slovakia later this year. Commercial truck driving, healthcare, and information technology are the program’s most popular fields of study. We’ve built 39 Career Choice classrooms so far, and we locate them behind glass walls in high traffic areas inside our fulfillment centers so associates can be inspired by seeing their peers pursue new skills.
- Career Choice－我们特别引以为傲的计划就是职业选择计划（Career Choice）。对于任职时间超过一年的员工，我们预付95％的学杂费和教科书费用（最高1.2万元），为员工取得高要求职业证书（例如飞机修护师、计算器辅助设计、机器技术、医疗科技和护理）的证书和副学士学位。我们提供教育资金给需求量很大的地区，无论这些技能是否与员工在Amazon的职务相关都可以获得资助。自2012年推出此计划，全球已有1.6万名员工（包括美国的1.2万多名）加入职业选择计划。职业选择计划在10个国家实行，将于今年内拓展至南非、哥斯达黎加和斯洛伐克。商用卡车驾驶、医疗保健和IT技术是此计划最受欢迎的研究领域。到目前为止，我们已经建立了39个职业选择计划教室，它们位于配送中心最繁忙的区域，员工可以透过玻璃墙看到其他同事追求新技能，进而受到启发。
The credit for these milestones is deserved by many. Amazon is 560,000 employees. It’s also 2 million sellers, hundreds of thousands of authors, millions of AWS developers, and hundreds of millions of divinely discontent customers around the world who push to make us better each and every day.
This year marks the 20th anniversary of our first shareholder letter, and our core values and approach remain unchanged. We continue to aspire to be Earth’s most customer-centric company, and we recognize this to be no small or easy challenge. We know there is much we can do better, and we find tremendous energy in the many challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.
A huge thank you to each and every customer for allowing us to serve you, to our shareowners for your support, and to Amazonians everywhere for your ingenuity, your passion, and your high standards.
As always, I attach a copy of our original 1997 letter. It remains Day 1.
Jeffrey P. Bezo
Jeffrey P. Bezos
Founder and Chief Executive Officer
- 高标准是后天习得的。 高标准具有传染性，将一个新成员带入高标准团队，他会迅速适应。 其实低标准也是，公司就是大染缸，不被染的人很少。
- 高标准仅限特定领域。 其实这很好理解，不可能人在所有领域都坚持高标准。
- 高标准有明确的范畴。 知道这事需要多久才能达到预期的期望。
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