“Jeff, what does Day 2 look like?”

「杰夫,Day 2长什么样子?」

That’s a question I just got at our most recent all-hands meeting. I’ve been reminding people that it’s Day 1 for a couple of decades. I work in an Amazon building named Day 1, and when I moved buildings, I took the name with me. I spend time thinking about this topic

这是我在最近的全体会议上遇到的一个问题。我一直提醒人们,现在依旧是Day 1。我原本在一栋名为Day 1的建筑中工作,当我换办公室时,我把这个名字也带走了。关于Day 1,我花了很多时间思考。

“Day 2 is stasis. Followed by irrelevance. Followed by excruciating, painful decline. Followed by death. And that is why it is always Day 1.”

「Day 2是停滞的、无关紧要的、极其乏味的,痛苦地衰退,最终死亡。这就是为什么我总说现在是Day 1。」

To be sure, this kind of decline would happen in extreme slow motion. An established company might harvest Day 2 for decades, but the final result would still come.

可以肯定的是,这种衰退的过程极度缓慢。一间成熟的公司可能在Day 2欢喜收获数十年,但最终结果一定会到来。

I’m interested in the question, how do you fend off Day 2? What are the techniques and tactics? How do you keep the vitality of Day 1, even inside a large organization?

我对这个问题感兴趣:你如何抵御Day 2?有哪些技巧和方法?即使在大型组织内部,你如何保持Day 1的活力?

Such a question can’t have a simple answer. There will be many elements, multiple paths, and many traps. I don’t know the whole answer, but I may know bits of it. Here’s a starter pack of essentials for Day 1 defense: customer obsession, a skeptical view of proxies, the eager adoption of external trends, and high-velocity decision making.

这样的问题不能简单回答。这个问题包含很多元素、多条路径和许多陷阱。我并不知道全部答案,但我可能知道其中一部分。这是Day 1的入门装备:专注于客户、对代理的怀疑态度、渴望接纳外部趋势及快速决策。

True Customer Obsession


There are many ways to center a business. You can be competitor focused, you can be product focused, you can be technology focused, you can be business model focused, and there are more. But in my view, obsessive customer focus is by far the most protective of Day 1 vitality.

一项业务可以有很多种专注方式。你可以专注于竞争对手,可以专注于产品,可以专注于技术,可以专注于商业模式等等。但是在我看来,专注于客户是保持Day 1活力的最好方式。

Why? There are many advantages to a customer-centric approach, but here’s the big one: customers are always beautifully, wonderfully dissatisfied, even when they report being happy and business is great. Even when they don’t yet know it, customers want something better, and your desire to delight customers will drive you to invent on their behalf. No customer ever asked Amazon to create the Prime membership program, but it sure turns out they wanted it, and I could give you many such examples.


Staying in Day 1 requires you to experiment patiently, accept failures, plant seeds, protect saplings, and double down when you see customer delight. A customer-obsessed culture best creates the conditions where all of that can happen.

保持在Day 1需要耐心试验、接受失败、种下种子、保护树苗,并在客户满意时加倍努力。专注于客户的文化最能创造Day 1的条件,使一切发生。

Resist Proxies


As companies get larger and more complex, there’s a tendency to manage to proxies. This comes in many shapes and sizes, and it’s dangerous, subtle, and very Day 2.

随着公司的规模变大且日益复杂,会出现代理管理的趋势。代理管理十分多样、非常危险,而且正是Day 2的征兆。

A common example is process as proxy. Good process serves you so you can serve customers. But if you’re not watchful, the process can become the thing. This can happen very easily in large organizations. The process becomes the proxy for the result you want. You stop looking at outcomes and just make sure you’re doing the process right. Gulp. It’s not that rare to hear a junior leader defend a bad outcome with something like, “Well, we followed the process.” A more experienced leader will use it as an opportunity to investigate and improve the process. The process is not the thing. It’s always worth asking, do we own the process or does the process own us? In a Day 2 company, you might find it’s the second.

一个常见的例子就是代理流程。好的流程让你可以更好地为客户服务。但是如果你不注意的话,「遵循流程」就会变成「为客户服务」的同义词,这会变成问题。在大型组织中,这个问题很容易发生。于是,你不再关注结果,只是确保自己正确地执行流程。年轻领导者以「是这样的,我们确实遵循流序」之类的话来为自己辩护,这样的事并不罕见。经验丰富的领导者,将以此为契机调查和改进流程。过程本身不是问题。我们要不断问自己:流程听命于我们,还是我们听命于流程?在Day 2的公司中,你会发现他们是后者。

Another example: market research and customer surveys can become proxies for customers – something that’s especially dangerous when you’re inventing and designing products. “Fifty-five percent of beta testers report being satisfied with this feature. That is up from 47% in the first survey.” That’s hard to interpret and could unintentionally mislead.


Good inventors and designers deeply understand their customer. They spend tremendous energy developing that intuition. They study and understand many anecdotes rather than only the averages you’ll find on surveys. They live with the design.


I’m not against beta testing or surveys. But you, the product or service owner, must understand the customer, have a vision, and love the offering. Then, beta testing and research can help you find your blind spots. A remarkable customer experience starts with heart, intuition, curiosity, play, guts, taste. You won’t find any of it in a survey.


Embrace External Trends


The outside world can push you into Day 2 if you won’t or can’t embrace powerful trends quickly. If you fight them, you’re probably fighting the future. Embrace them and you have a tailwind.

如果你不愿或无法迅速接受大趋势,那外界将会把你带入Day 2。如果你与之对抗,那么你可能正在和未来对立。拥抱趋势,你会顺风顺水。

These big trends are not that hard to spot (they get talked and written about a lot), but they can be strangely hard for large organizations to embrace. We’re in the middle of an obvious one right now: machine learning and artificial intelligence.


Over the past decades computers have broadly automated tasks that programmers could describe with clear rules and algorithms. Modern machine learning techniques now allow us to do the same for tasks where describing the precise rules is much harder.


At Amazon, we’ve been engaged in the practical application of machine learning for many years now. Some of this work is highly visible: our autonomous Prime Air delivery drones; the Amazon Go convenience store that uses machine vision to eliminate checkout lines; and Alexa, our cloud-based AI assistant. (We still struggle to keep Echo in stock, despite our best efforts. A high-quality problem, but a problem. We’re working on it.)

在Amazon,我们从事机器学习的应用已经很多年了。其中一些工作的成果是明显可见的:我们的自动化运送无人机Prime Air、使用机器视觉技术达到无柜台结账的便利店Amazon Go、基于云技术的AI助手Alexa,1我们基于云的AI助手。(尽管我们已尽了最大的努力,但我们仍在努力增加智能音箱Echo的库存量。这是一个维护质量的问题,我们正在努力。)

But much of what we do with machine learning happens beneath the surface. Machine learning drives our algorithms for demand forecasting, product search ranking, product and deals recommendations, merchandising placements, fraud detection, translations, and much more. Though less visible, much of the impact of machine learning will be of this type – quietly but meaningfully improving core operations.


Inside AWS, we’re excited to lower the costs and barriers to machine learning and AI so organizations of all sizes can take advantage of these advanced techniques.


Using our pre-packaged versions of popular deep learning frameworks running on P2 compute instances (optimized for this workload), customers are already developing powerful systems ranging everywhere from early disease detection to increasing crop yields. And we’ve also made Amazon’s higher level services available in a convenient form. Amazon Lex (what’s inside Alexa), Amazon Polly, and Amazon Rekognition remove the heavy lifting from natural language understanding, speech generation, and image analysis. They can be accessed with simple API calls – no machine learning expertise required. Watch this space. Much more to come.

使用我们在P2计算实例上运行深度学习框架的预包装版本,客户已经在开发功能强大的系统,其范围从早期疾病检测到农作物产量提升。而且,我们以方便的形式提供了Amazon的更高级别服务。Amazon Lex(Alexa的内部功能)、Amazon Polly和Amazon Rekognition去除了自然语言理解、语音生成和图像分析方面的繁重工作。开发者可以透过简单的API来使用它们-无须复杂的机器学习专业知识。注意了,还有更多东西将推出。

High-Velocity Decision Making


Day 2 companies make high-quality decisions, but they make high-quality decisions slowly. To keep the energy and dynamism of Day 1, you have to somehow make high-quality, high-velocity decisions. Easy for start-ups and very challenging for large organizations. The senior team at Amazon is determined to keep our decision-making velocity high. Speed matters in business – plus a high-velocity decision making environment is more fun too. We don’t know all the answers, but here are some thoughts.

Day 2的公司可以做出高质量的决策,但他们是慢慢地做出高质量的决策。为了保持Day 1的精力与活力,你必须以某种方式做出质量高、速度快的决策。对于初创来说很容易,但这对于大型组织来说很有挑战性。Amazon的高级团队决心保持快速的决策速度。速度对企业至关重要,快速决策让商业环境更加有趣。我们并不知道所有问题的答案,这只是我们的一些想法。

First, never use a one-size-fits-all decision-making process. Many decisions are reversible, two-way doors. Those decisions can use a light-weight process. For those, so what if you’re wrong? I wrote about this in more detail in last year’s letter.


Second, most decisions should probably be made with somewhere around 70% of the information you wish you had. If you wait for 90%, in most cases, you’re probably being slow. Plus, either way, you need to be good at quickly recognizing and correcting bad decisions. If you’re good at course correcting, being wrong may be less costly than you think, whereas being slow is going to be expensive for sure.


Third, use the phrase “disagree and commit.” This phrase will save a lot of time. If you have conviction on a particular direction even though there’s no consensus, it’s helpful to say, “Look, I know we disagree on this but will you gamble with me on it? Disagree and commit?” By the time you’re at this point, no one can know the answer for sure, and you’ll probably get a quick yes.

第三,使用惯用语「不同意但支持」将节省大量时间。即使在没有达成共识的情况下,你仍对某个特定方向充满信心,那么你可以说:「看,我知道我们对此没有共识,但你是否可以和我赌一把?不同意但支持?」 虽然还没有任何一方知道这个方向的前景如何,但你很可能会得到尝试的机会。

This isn’t one way. If you’re the boss, you should do this too. I disagree and commit all the time. We recently greenlit a particular Amazon Studios original. I told the team my view: debatable whether it would be interesting enough, complicated to produce, the business terms aren’t that good, and we have lots of other opportunities. They had a completely different opinion and wanted to go ahead. I wrote back right away with “I disagree and commit and hope it becomes the most watched thing we’ve ever made.” Consider how much slower this decision cycle would have been if the team had actually had to convince me rather than simply get my commitment.

不只是员工应该如此,如果你是老板,你也应该这么做。我总是不同意但支持。我们最近放行了几部Amazon Studios的原创内容。我告诉团队:无论想法是否足够有趣、会不会太复杂、有没有考虑商业层面,在我们面前还有很多机会,欢迎把想法提出来讨论。他们有完全不同的意见,并希望可以往前推进。我立刻回信:「我不同意但支持,希望它成为我们有史以来最受关注的事情。」想想看,如果团队必须说服我才能得到我的支持,那么这个决策周期变得多慢。

Note what this example is not: it’s not me thinking to myself “well, these guys are wrong and missing the point, but this isn’t worth me chasing.” It’s a genuine disagreement of opinion, a candid expression of my view, a chance for the team to weigh my view, and a quick, sincere commitment to go their way. And given that this team has already brought home 11 Emmys, 6 Golden Globes, and 3 Oscars, I’m just glad they let me in the room at all!


Fourth, recognize true misalignment issues early and escalate them immediately. Sometimes teams have different objectives and fundamentally different views. They are not aligned. No amount of discussion, no number of meetings will resolve that deep misalignment. Without escalation, the default dispute resolution mechanism for this scenario is exhaustion. Whoever has more stamina carries the decision.


I’ve seen many examples of sincere misalignment at Amazon over the years. When we decided to invite third party sellers to compete directly against us on our own product detail pages – that was a big one. Many smart, well-intentioned Amazonians were simply not at all aligned with the direction. The big decision set up hundreds of smaller decisions, many of which needed to be escalated to the senior team.


“You’ve worn me down” is an awful decision-making process. It’s slow and de-energizing. Go for quick escalation instead – it’s better.


So, have you settled only for decision quality, or are you mindful of decision velocity too? Are the world’s trends tailwinds for you? Are you falling prey to proxies, or do they serve you? And most important of all, are you delighting customers? We can have the scope and capabilities of a large company and the spirit and heart of a small one. But we have to choose it.


A huge thank you to each and every customer for allowing us to serve you, to our shareowners for your support, and to Amazonians everywhere for your hard work, your ingenuity, and your passion.


As always, I attach a copy of our original 1997 letter. It remains Day 1.

如同往常,我把我们在1997年写的致股东信附在文末。我们的价值观依然不变,今天依旧是Day 1。





Jeffrey P. Bezos

Founder and Chief Executive Officer

Amazon.com, Inc.





Day1其实在亚马逊网站上有:链接 https://aws.amazon.com/tw/executive-insights/content/how-amazon-defines-and-operationalizes-a-day-1-culture/

Day1指: 持續的好奇心、敏捷性和實驗

Day2在这封信上有,Day 2是停滞的、无关紧要的、极其乏味的,痛苦地衰退,最终死亡。



  1. 真正专注于客户
  2. 拒绝代理
  3. 拥抱外部趋势
  4. 快速决策


第二,拒绝代理。 代理是指代理管理,公司大了,很多事情只是遵循流程,而不是服务客户,这就导致公司偏离了最终的目的。






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