第十九封信:成为年销售千亿美元的公司

第十九封信中英文对照:

To our shareowners:

致我们的股东:

This year, Amazon became the fastest company ever to reach $100 billion in annual sales. Also this year, Amazon Web Services is reaching $10 billion in annual sales … doing so at a pace even faster than Amazon achieved that milestone.

今年,Amazon成为有史以来最快达到年销售额1000亿美元的公司。其中,AWS的年销售额就达到了100亿美元。AWS的增长速度超过了Amazon本身实现这一里程碑的速度。

What’s going on here? Both were planted as tiny seeds and both have grown organically without significant acquisitions into meaningful and large businesses, quickly. Superficially, the two could hardly be more different. One serves consumers and the other serves enterprises. One is famous for brown boxes and the other for APIs. Is it only a coincidence that two such dissimilar offerings grew so quickly under one roof? Luck plays an outsized role in every endeavor, and I can assure you we’ve had a bountiful supply. But beyond that, there is a connection between these two businesses. Under the surface, the two are not so different after all. They share a distinctive organizational culture that cares deeply about and acts with conviction on a small number of principles. I’m talking about customer obsession rather than competitor obsession, eagerness to invent and pioneer, willingness to fail, the patience to think long-term, and the taking of professional pride in operational excellence. Through that lens, AWS and Amazon retail are very similar indeed.

这一切究竟发生了什么?两者起初都是刚萌芽的种子,而且都在没有大额收购下,自发地成长为有价值的大型企业。从表面上看,两者几乎没有什么不同。一项服务于消费者,另一项服务于企业客户。前者以棕色包装盒闻名,后者以API为人所知。两个如此不同的产品,在同一个屋檐下如此迅速地增长,只是一个巧合吗?运气在事业发展中总会发挥举足轻重的作用,而我们的运气很不错。抛开表面来看,这两项业务之间有一些共通之处。他们都有着独特的组织文化,关注少数原则并坚信不移。我所说的是对客户的关注,而不是对竞争对手的关注。对发明和开拓事业的渴望,并愿意为此承担失败的可能。对长期思考的耐心,以及对卓越运营的自豪感。从这个角度来看,AWS和Amazon零售业务十分相似。

A word about corporate cultures: for better or for worse, they are enduring, stable, hard to change. They can be a source of advantage or disadvantage. You can write down your corporate culture, but when you do so, you’re discovering it, uncovering it – not creating it. It is created slowly over time by the people and by events – by the stories of past success and failure that become a deep part of the company lore. If it’s a distinctive culture, it will fit certain people like a custom-made glove. The reason cultures are so stable in time is because people self-select. Someone energized by competitive zeal may select and be happy in one culture, while someone who loves to pioneer and invent may choose another. The world, thankfully, is full of many high-performing, highly distinctive corporate cultures. We never claim that our approach is the right one – just that it’s ours – and over the last two decades, we’ve collected a large group of like-minded people. Folks who find our approach energizing and meaningful.

这里我想分享一段关于企业文化的描述:无论好与坏,它们都是持久、稳定且难以改变的。它们可能成为某项优点或缺点的来源。你当然可以轻易地用纸和笔写下公司的企业文化,但是这么做并不能创造一种企业文化。企业文化是由人和故事塑造的。随着时间流逝,过去的成功和失败将逐渐成为公司的一部分。如果这是一种独特的文化,那么它就像定制手套一样只适合某些人。文化之所以稳定,其原因是人们的自我选择。充满竞争热情的人,可以在某种文化中感到快乐,而热爱开拓创新的人可以选择另一种文化。值得庆幸的是,世界上充满了许多高效且独特的企业文化。我们从来没有说过我们的方法是绝对正确的-它只不过是我们选择的企业文化,我们用它在过去二十年中吸引了一大批志同道合的人。这些人都认为我们的企业文化充满活力和富有意义。

One area where I think we are especially distinctive is failure. I believe we are the best place in the world to fail (we have plenty of practice!), and failure and invention are inseparable twins. To invent you have to experiment, and if you know in advance that it’s going to work, it’s not an experiment. Most large organizations embrace the idea of invention, but are not willing to suffer the string of failed experiments necessary to get there. Outsized returns often come from betting against conventional wisdom, and conventional wisdom is usually right. Given a ten percent chance of a 100 times payoff, you should take that bet every time. But you’re still going to be wrong nine times out of ten. We all know that if you swing for the fences, you’re going to strike out a lot, but you’re also going to hit some home runs. The difference between baseball and business, however, is that baseball has a truncated outcome distribution. When you swing, no matter how well you connect with the ball, the most runs you can get is four. In business, every once in a while, when you step up to the plate, you can score 1,000 runs. This long-tailed distribution of returns is why it’s important to be bold. Big winners pay for so many experiments.

我认为让Amazon与众不同的一点就是失败。如果要失败,我相信Amazon是世界上最好的地方(对此我们很有经验!)。失败和发明是密不可分的双胞胎。要想发明创造些什么,你必须先进行实验。如果你事先知道它会起作用,那就称不上实验。大多数大型组织都想要发明的成果,但不愿意承受过程中一系列的失败实验。丰厚的回报通常来自与传统作法的对赌,而传统作法智慧在大多数情况下是正确的。假设有10%的机会能获得100倍的回报,我认为你应该尝试。你的确可能在10次中错了9次,你有可能会挥棒落空,也有可能击出本垒打。然而,棒球与商业之间的区别在于棒球的可能性是有限的。挥棒时,无论你表现得再好,你能跑的垒包数最多就是四个。在商业世界中则不然,你最多可以往前迈进1000步。这种长尾的收益分配,是为什么我认为应该要大胆的原因。最大的赢家,做了最多的实验。

AWS, Marketplace and Prime are all examples of bold bets at Amazon that worked, and we’re fortunate to have those three big pillars. They have helped us grow into a large company, and there are certain things that only large companies can do. With a tip of the hat to our Seattle neighbors, no matter how good an entrepreneur you are, you’re not going to build an all-composite 787 in your garage startup – not one you’d want to fly in anyway. Used well, our scale enables us to build services for customers that we could otherwise never even contemplate. But also, if we’re not vigilant and thoughtful, size could slow us down and diminish our inventiveness.

AWS、Marketplace和Prime都是Amazon大胆下注的例子,最终我们很幸运地拥有这三大支柱。它们帮助我们成长为一家大公司,让我们有机会去做那些只有大公司才能做的事。我们向我们在西雅图的邻居打开大门,提供我们的服务。无论你是多么出色的企业家,你都不可能在车库创业公司中建造一架全复合材料的波音787飞机。我们运用自身的巨大规模来为客户提供服务,如果运用得当,这些服务将是我们以前无法企及的。如果我们不保持警惕,那么规模会使我们放慢脚步,削弱我们的创造力。

As I meet with teams across Amazon, I am continually amazed at the passion, intelligence and creativity on display. Our teams accomplished a lot in the last year, and I’d like to share a few of the highlights of our efforts to nourish and globalize our three big offerings – Prime, Marketplace and AWS. And while I’ll focus on those three, I assure you that we also remain hard at work on finding a fourth.

当我与Amazon的不同团队见面时,我对他们都展现出来的热情、智慧和创造力感到讶异。团队们去年取得了很大的成就,在此我想分享的三大产品-Prime、Marketplace和AWS,重点强调团队为它们付出的努力。尽管我只重点介绍这三个,但我向你保证,我们会继续努力寻找第四个。

Prime

Prime服务

We want Prime to be such a good value, you’d be irresponsible not to be a member.

我们希望Prime拥有极高的价值,让每个会员都认为非常物超所值。

We’ve grown Prime two-day delivery selection from 1 million items to over 30 million, added Sunday Delivery, and introduced Free Same-Day Delivery on hundreds of thousands of products for customers in more than 35 cities around the world. We’ve added music, photo storage, the Kindle Owners’ Lending Library, and streaming films and TV.

我们已将Prime服务中两天内到货的商品品项从100万件增加至超过3000万件,并新增了「周日到货」服务选项,为全球超过35个城市的顾客推出了当日到货服务,涵盖成千上万种产品。我们新增了音乐、照片存储、Kindle图书馆、串流影音服务。

Prime Now offers members one-hour delivery on an important subset of selection, and was launched only 111 days after it was dreamed up. In that time, a small team built a customer-facing app, secured a location for an urban warehouse, determined which 25,000 items to sell, got those items stocked, recruited and on-boarded new staff, tested, iterated, designed new software for internal use – both a warehouse management system and a driver-facing app – and launched in time for the holidays. Today, just 15 months after that first city launch, Prime Now is serving members in more than 30 cities around the world.

从构想到实现,我们只花了111天就推出了Prime Now服务。会员可在一部份品项中享受1小时内到货的配送服务。当时,一个小团队构建了一个面向消费者的App,在城市仓库中保留一部分位置,决定2.5万件要出售的商品,将这些商品存入仓库,招聘和雇用新员工,进行了软件的设计、测试和迭代,让内部使用的仓库管理系统及面向司机的App及时在假期上线。今天,距离我们在第一个城市推出服务后仅15个月,Prime Now正在为全球30多个城市的会员提供服务。

Prime Video offers exclusives from some of the world’s most passionate storytellers. We want brilliant creators like Jill Soloway, Jason Schwartzman and Spike Lee to take risks and push boundaries. Our original series have already earned more than 120 nominations and won nearly 60 awards, including Golden Globe and Emmy awards. Many of these are stories that might never have been told in the traditional linear programming model. In the pipeline and coming soon are new series and movies from creators like Jeremy Clarkson, David E. Kelley, Woody Allen and Kenneth Lonergan.

Prime Video提供独家内容,这些内容来自世界上最热情的创作者。我们希望像Jill Soloway、Jason Schwartzman和Spike Lee这样的杰出创作者冒险并突破界限。我们最初的系列影集已获得了超过120个提名,获颁近60个奖项,其中包括金球奖和艾美奖。得奖作品中,有许多都是传统叙事方式从未讲过的故事类型。即将上映的作品包括Jeremy Clarkson、David E. Kelley、Woody Allen和Kenneth Lonergan等创作者的新影集和电影。

The Man in the High Castle, based on the Philip K. Dick novel, explores an alternate history where the U.S. lost World War II. It debuted on Prime Video on November 20th and in four weeks became our most-viewed show – receiving acclaim from critics like “…Amazon has the best new drama of the season in The Man in the High Castle” and “The Man in the High Castle accomplishes so much, where most new broadcast TV dramas these days don’t even try.”

根据Philip K.Dick的小说改编,《The Man in the High Castle》讲述了美国在第二次世界大战中失败的另一个平行时空的故事。11月20日在Prime Video上首次播出,在四个星期内荣登成为观看次数最多的节目。节目受到评论家的赞赏,例如「 Amazon拥有本季最佳新影集《The Man in the High Castle》」和「《The Man in the High Castle》的成就之高,是多数新播出的电视剧没有尝试过的。」

These shows are great for customers, and they feed the Prime flywheel – Prime members who watch Prime Video are more likely to convert from a free trial to a paid membership, and more likely to renew their annual subscriptions.

这些节目非常适合顾客,而且他们会推动Prime服务的飞轮运转-观看Prime Video的会员更可能从免费试用转换为付费会员,并且更有可能再次续订。

Finally, our first ever Prime Day surpassed all our expectations – more new members tried Prime that day than any other day in our history. Worldwide order growth increased 266% over the same day the year before, and sellers whose products are Prime-eligible through FBA saw record-breaking sales – with growth nearing 300%.

最终,我们有史以来的第一个针对Prime会员的优惠之日Prime Day大大超出我们的期望-史上增加最多新会员尝试Prime的一天。全球订单比前年同期增长了266%,参与Prime服务的第三方卖家销售额创历史新高,增长率接近300%。

Prime has become an all-you-can-eat, physical-digital hybrid that members love. Membership grew 51% last year – including 47% growth in the U.S. and even faster internationally – and there are now tens of millions of members worldwide. There’s a good chance you’re already one of them, but if you’re not – please be responsible – join Prime.

Prime已成为最受喜爱的无限量吃到饱的会员资格,提供实体产品也提供虚拟产品。去年,Prime会员人数增长了51%(其中美国增长了47%,国际增长速度更快),现在全球有数千万Prime会员。你很有可能已经是其中一员,但如果你还不是-对自己的荷包负责,快加入Prime。

Marketplace

第三方卖家平台Marketplace

We took two big swings and missed – with Auctions and zShops – before we launched Marketplace over 15 years ago. We learned from our failures and stayed stubborn on the vision, and today close to 50% of units sold on Amazon are sold by third-party sellers. Marketplace is great for customers because it adds unique selection, and it’s great for sellers – there are over 70,000 entrepreneurs with sales of more than $100,000 a year selling on Amazon, and they’ve created over 600,000 new jobs. With FBA, that flywheel spins faster because sellers’ inventory becomes Prime-eligible – Prime becomes more valuable for members, and sellers sell more.

15年前,在我们推出Marketplace之前,我们经历两次变动和误判,错过了Aunctions和zShops。我们从失败中汲取教训,对愿景更加坚持。如今,在Amazon上出售的商品中,近50%是由第三方卖家出售的。Marketplace对顾客来说很棒,因为它增加更多独特的选择。Marketplace对卖家也很棒,平台上有超过7万名企业家,他们的年销售额超过10万美元,创造了超过60万个工作机会。借助Amazon配送服务,飞轮的旋转速度更快。第三方卖家的库存商品符合Prime资格,而Prime让顾客的会员资格更有价值,顾客买得更多,卖家则卖出更多。

This year, we created a new program called Seller Fulfilled Prime. We invited sellers who are able to meet a high bar for shipping speed and consistency in service to be part of the Prime program and ship their own orders at Prime speed directly. Those sellers have already seen a significant bump in sales, and the program has led to hundreds of thousands of additional items that are available to Prime customers via free two-day or next-day shipping in the U.S., U.K. and Germany.

今年,我们开始了一个新计划程序,称为「第三方卖方Prime计划」。我们邀请那些能满足快速配送要求的第三方卖家加入Prime计划,请他们直接以Prime计划要求的速度配送自己的订单。这些卖家已经感受到销量的巨大提升,此计划为顾客带来了成千上万种新商品可供选择。在美国、英国和德国,这些商品能在两天内或一天内免运送达Prime顾客手中。

We also created the Amazon Lending program to help sellers grow. Since the program launched, we’ve provided aggregate funding of over $1.5 billion to micro, small and medium businesses across the U.S., U.K. and Japan through short-term loans, with a total outstanding loan balance of about $400 million. Stephen Aarstol, surfer and owner of Tower Paddle Boards, is one beneficiary. His business has become one of the fastestgrowing companies in San Diego, in part with a little help from Amazon Lending. Click-to-cash access to capital helps these small enterprises grow, benefits customers with greater selection, and benefits Amazon since our marketplace revenue grows along with the sellers’ sales. We hope to expand Amazon Lending and are now working on ways to partner with banks so they can use their expertise to take and manage the bulk of the credit risk.

我们开启了「Amazon借贷计划」帮助卖家发展。自该计划启动以来,我们已透过短期贷款向美国、英国和日本的微型、中小型企业提供了总计超过15亿美元的资金,其中尚未偿还的贷款余额总计约为4亿美元。Tower Paddle Boards公司的Stephen Aarstol就是其中一位受益者。他的业务已成为圣地亚哥发展最快的公司之一,部分得益于Amazon借贷计划。由于我们的市场收入随着卖家的销售而增长,因此帮助这些小型企业发展能使Amazon受益,让顾客有更多选择。这些小型企业要做的事只有点击页面上的按钮,他们就能获得资金。我们希望扩大Amazon借贷计划,现在正在研究与银行的合作方式,以便银行可以运用其专业知识来承担和管理大部分信贷风险。

In addition to nourishing our big offerings, we work to globalize them. Our Marketplace creates opportunities for sellers anywhere to reach buyers around the world. In the past, many sellers would limit their customer base to their home country due to the practical challenges of selling internationally. To globalize Marketplace and expand the opportunities available to sellers, we built selling tools that empowered entrepreneurs in 172 countries to reach customers in 189 countries last year. These cross-border sales are now nearly a quarter of all third-party units sold on Amazon. To make this possible, we translated hundreds of millions of product listings and provided conversion services among 44 currencies. Even small and niche sellers can now tap into our global customer base and global logistics network. The end result is very different from sellers handling their own one-at-a-time, cross-border fulfillment. Plugable Technologies’ CEO, Bernie Thompson, put it this way: “It really changes the paradigm when you’re able to ship the goods in bulk to a warehouse in Europe or Japan and have those goods be fulfilled in one day or two days.”

除了丰富大型产品,我们也致力于将它们全球化。Marketplace为第三方卖家创造更多商业机会,覆盖全球各地的消费者。过去,由于在跨境销售困难重重,许多卖家会将客群限制在境内。为了使Marketplace全球化,我们开发了相关的销售工具,让全球172个国家的企业家在去年能够触及189个国家的消费者。目前这些跨境销量占Amazon第三方销量的近四分之一。为了实现全球化,我们翻译了数亿种产品列表,提供了44种货币之间的转换服务。现在,即使是小型卖家也可以运用我们的全球客群和物流网络。使用Amazon服务和卖方自己处理跨境物流得到的结果大不相同。Plugable Technologies的CEO Bernie Thompson这样说:「当你能够将货物批量运送到欧洲或日本的仓库,并在一两天内完成商品配送,这确实是范式层级的改变。」

India is another example of how we globalize an offering like Marketplace through customer obsession and a passion for invention. Last year we ran a program called Amazon Chai Cart where we deployed three-wheeled mobile carts to navigate in a city’s business districts, serve tea, water and lemon juice to small business owners and teach them about selling online. In a period of four months, the team traveled 15,280 km across 31 cities, served 37,200 cups of tea and engaged with over 10,000 sellers. Through this program and other conversations with sellers, we found out there was a lot of interest in selling online, but that sellers struggled with the belief that the process was time-consuming, tedious and complex. So, we invented Amazon Tatkal, which enables small businesses to get online in less than 60 minutes. Amazon Tatkal is a specially designed studio-on-wheels offering a suite of launch services including registration, imaging and cataloguing services, as well as basic seller training mechanisms. Since its launch on February 17th, we have reached sellers in 25 cities.

说到透过顾客至上的理念和对发明的热情来推行产品全球化,印度是我们一个很好的例子。去年,我们开始了一个名为Amazon Chai Cart的计划,在城市的商业区中放置三轮移动推车,为小型企业主提供茶、水和柠檬汁,教授他们关于在线零售的知识。在四个月的时间里,该团队在31个城市中行驶了15280公里,提供了37200杯茶,与超过10万名卖家接触。透过该计划,我们发现卖家在在线零售非常感兴趣,但他们认为这一过程耗时、乏味又复杂。因此,我们发明了Amazon Tatkal,它使小型卖家可以在不到60分钟的时间内开始在网络上销售商品。Amazon Tatkal是一款经过特殊设计的移动工作室,提供一整套上架服务,包括注册、拍照和编目服务,以及基本的卖方培训机制。自2月17日推出Amazon Tatkal后,我们已经触及25个城市的卖家。

We’re also globalizing Fulfillment by Amazon, adapting the service to local customer needs. In India, we launched a program called Seller Flex to combine Amazon’s logistics capabilities with sellers’ selection at the local neighborhood level. Sellers set aside a part of their warehouse for storing items to be sold on Amazon, and we configure it as a fulfillment center in our network that can receive and fulfill customer orders. Our team provides guidance on warehouse layout, IT and operational infrastructure, and trains the seller on standard operating procedures to be followed onsite. We’ve now launched 25 operational Seller Flex sites across ten cities.

我们也正在将Amazon配送服务全球化,使服务更适应当地消费者的需求。在印度,我们启动了一个名为Seller Flex的计划,将Amazon的物流能力与当地卖家的商品品项相结合。卖家空出一部分仓库,存放要在Amazon上出售的商品,我们会将其配置为Amazon物流网络中的配送点,可以接收和配送消费者的订单。我们的团队提供关于仓库设计、IT技术和运营的指导,对卖家进行标准操作程序的培训。现在,我们已经在十个城市里启动了25个可运营Seller Flex的站点。

Amazon Web Services

AWS云端运算服务

Just over 10 years ago, AWS started in the U.S. with its first major service, a simple storage service. Today, AWS offers more than 70 services for compute, storage, databases, analytics, mobile, Internet of Things, and enterprise applications. We also offer 33 Availability Zones across 12 geographic regions worldwide, with another five regions and 11 Availability Zones in Canada, China, India, the U.S., and the U.K. to be available in the coming year. AWS started with developers and startups, and now is used by more than a million customers from organizations of every size across nearly every industry – companies like Pinterest, Airbnb, GE, Enel, Capital One, Intuit, Johnson & Johnson, Philips, Hess, Adobe, McDonald’s, and Time Inc.

就在10年前,AWS开始了在美国的第一项主要业务,即简单存储服务(Simole Storage Service)。如今,AWS提供了计算、存储、数据库、分析、移动端、物联网和企业应用等超过70种服务。明年,我们将在全球12个区域提供33个服务点,其中包含加拿大、中国、印度、美国和英国的11个服务点。AWS从开发人员和初创公司开始,如今服务超过100万名客户,涵盖几乎各行各业不同规模的组织,包括Pinterest、Airbnb、GE、Enel、Capital One、Intuit、Johnson&Johnson、Philips、Hess、Adobe、McDonald’s和Time。

AWS is bigger than http://Amazon.com was at 10 years old, growing at a faster rate, and – most noteworthy in my view – the pace of innovation continues to accelerate – we announced 722 significant new features and services in 2015, a 40% increase over 2014.

AWS的规模比10年前的Amazon更大,而且增长速度更快。我认为最值得关注的是-创新的步伐依然不断加快。AWS在2015年推出了722种重要的新功能和服务,和2014年相比增长了40%。

Many characterized AWS as a bold – and unusual – bet when we started. “What does this have to do with selling books?” We could have stuck to the knitting. I’m glad we didn’t. Or did we? Maybe the knitting has as much to do with our approach as the arena. AWS is customer obsessed, inventive and experimental, long-term oriented, and cares deeply about operational excellence.

在我们开始时,许多人都将AWS视为大胆且不正常的赌注。「AWS和卖书有什么关系?」我们本来可以固守本业,但很高兴的是我们没有。倘若抛开业务所在领域,就价值观来说,我们依然固守原本的做事方法。AWS依然信奉顾客至上、创新与实验精神、长期主义,并非常重视卓越的运营。

Given 10 years and many iterations, that approach has allowed AWS to rapidly expand into the world’s most comprehensive, widely adopted cloud service. As with our retail business, AWS is made up of many small teams with single-threaded owners, enabling rapid innovation. The team rolls out new functionality almost daily across 70 services, and that new functionality just “shows up” for customers – there’s no upgrading.

经过10年,在多次迭代之后,这样的做事方法已使AWS迅速拓展为世界上最全面、应用最广泛的云服务。和我们的零售业务一样,AWS由许多专业分工的小型团队组成,因此可大大实现快速创新。AWS团队几乎每天都会推出新功能,而且这些新功能可直接使用,无需升级。

Many companies describe themselves as customer-focused, but few walk the walk. Most big technology companies are competitor focused. They see what others are doing, and then work to fast follow. In contrast, 90 to 95% of what we build in AWS is driven by what customers tell us they want. A good example is our new database engine, Amazon Aurora. Customers have been frustrated by the proprietary nature, high cost, and licensing terms of traditional, commercial-grade database providers. And while many companies have started moving toward more open engines like MySQL and Postgres, they often struggle to get the performance they need. Customers asked us if we could eliminate that inconvenient trade-off, and that’s why we built Aurora. It has commercial-grade durability and availability, is fully compatible with MySQL, has up to 5 times better performance than the typical MySQL implementation, but is 1/10th the price of the traditional, commercial-grade database engines. This has struck a resonant chord with customers, and Aurora is the fastest-growing service in the history of AWS. Nearly this same story could be told about Redshift, our managed data warehouse service, which is the second fastest growing service in AWS history – both small and large companies are moving their data warehouses to Redshift.

许多公司说自己是以客户为中心,但很少公司真正实行。多数大型科技公司都以竞争对手为关注核心。他们看到别人在做什么,然后努力迅速跟进。相较之下,AWS有超过9成的功能是由客户告诉我们他们想要什么,进而驱动我们实现。一个绝佳的例子是我们的新数据库引擎Amazon Aurora。出于专用性、高成本和授权条款等特性,传统的商业级数据库并不能让客户满意。尽管许多公司开始转向MySQL和Postgres这类更开放的数据库引擎,但它们通常很难达到客户所需的效能。客户问我们是否能解决折衷带来的不便,于是我们建构了Aurora。Aurora兼具商业级的耐用性和可用性,与MySQL兼容,性能比一般的MySQL高5倍,但价格只有传统商业数据库引擎的十分之一。这引起了客户的好感,Aurora是AWS历史上增长最快的服务。我们几乎可以用同样的故事套用在数据库托管服务Redshift,它是AWS历史上增长第二快的服务-大大小小的公司正将数据库迁移到Redshift。

Our approach to pricing is also driven by our customer-centric culture – we’ve dropped prices 51 times, in many cases before there was any competitive pressure to do so. In addition to price reductions, we’ve also continued to launch new lower cost services like Aurora, Redshift, QuickSight (our new Business Intelligence service), EC2 Container Service (our new compute container service), and Lambda (our pioneering server-less computing capability), while extending our services to offer a range of highly cost-effective options for running just about every type of application or IT use case imaginable. We even roll out and continuously improve services like Trusted Advisor, which alerts customers when they can save money – resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in savings for our customers. I’m pretty sure we’re the only IT vendor telling customers how to stop spending money with us.

我们以客户为中心的文化决定了我们的定价方式-在众多竞争压力面前,我们将价格降低了51倍。除了降价外,我们还继续推出低成本的新服务,例如Aurora、Redshift、QuickSight(新的商业智能服务)、EC2 Container Service(新的计算容器服务)和Lambda(我们的无服务器运算服务),同时也扩展我们的服务,提供一系列极具成本效益的功能。我们推出并不断改进Trusted Advisor,它会在客户应该省钱时提醒他们,这项服务为我们的客户节省了数亿美元。我敢肯定,我们是唯一一家会告诉客户不要再付钱给我们的IT系统供货商。

Whether you are a startup founded yesterday or a business that has been around for 140 years, the cloud is providing all of us with unbelievable opportunities to reinvent our businesses, add new customer experiences, redeploy capital to fuel growth, increase security, and do all of this so much faster than before. MLB Advanced Media is an example of an AWS customer that is constantly reinventing the customer experience. MLB’s Statcast tracking technology is a new feature for baseball fans that measures the position of each player, the baserunners, and the ball as they move during every play on the field, giving viewers on any screen access to empirical data that answers age-old questions like “what could have happened if…” while also bringing new questions to life. Turning baseball into rocket science, Statcast uses a missile radar system to measure every pitched ball’s movements more than 2,000 times per second, streams and collects data in real-time through Amazon Kinesis (our service for processing real-time streaming data), stores the data on Amazon S3, and then performs analytics in Amazon EC2. The suite of services will generate nearly 7 TB of raw statistical data per game and up to 17 PB per season, shedding quantitative light on age-old, but never verified, baseball pearls of wisdom like “never slide into first.”

无论你是昨天创立的初创公司,还是有140年历史的企业,云技术都为我们所有人提供了难以置信的机会。有了云技术,重塑业务的速度比以前更快,可以更快提升客户体验、调整资金促进增长、提升安全性。在AWS的客户中,MLB Advanced Media就是不断重塑客户体验的一个例子。美国职业棒球大联盟的Statcast追踪技术是球迷可使用的一项新功能,它可以测量每位球员、跑垒球员和球在每次比赛中移动时的位置,使球迷可以在任何电子装置上查找历史数据,球迷可以从中找到「如果……将会发生怎样?」的答案。同时也带来了新的问题,Statcast将棒球变得像火箭科学,Statcast采用导弹的雷达系统,以每秒采样2000次的速度测量每颗球的运动,并透过Amazon Kinesis(我们用于处理实时数据的服务)收集数据。数据会存储在Amazon S3上,然后在Amazon EC2中进行分析。每场球赛产生将近7 TB的原始统计数据,每个赛季最多可产生17 PB。于是,从此以后我们可以定量研究「跑一垒时别滑垒」这样的古老智慧是否正确。

About seven years ago, Netflix announced that they were going to move all their applications to the cloud. Netflix chose AWS because it provided them with the greatest scale and the broadest set of services and features. Netflix recently completed their cloud migration, and stories like theirs are becoming increasingly common as companies like Infor, Intuit, and Time Inc., have made plans to move all of their applications to AWS.

大约在七年前,Netflix宣布将把所有应用程序迁移到AWS。Netflix之所以选择AWS,是因为AWS提供了最大的规模、最丰富的服务和功能。近期,Netflix完成了迁移工作。随着Infor、Intuit和Time Inc.等公司计划将其所有应用程序迁移至AWS,这样的事情正变得越来越普遍。

AWS is already good enough today to attract more than 1 million customers, and the service is only going to get better from here. As the team continues their rapid pace of innovation, we’ll offer more and more capabilities to let builders build unfettered, it will get easier and easier to collect, store and analyze data, we’ll continue to add more geographic locations, and we’ll continue to see growth in mobile and “connected” device applications. Over time, it’s likely that most companies will choose not to run their own data centers, opting for the cloud instead.

如今,AWS已经出色到可以吸引超过一百万名客户,而且服务会因此变得更好。随着团队不断加快创新脚步,我们将提供更多功能,使企业可以放开手任意开发,不受束缚。收集、存储和分析数据将变得越来越容易,我们会继续增加服务点,相信未来能在AWS上见到更多移动端应用及物联网设备。随着时间的流逝,大多数公司可能会选择不运行自己的数据中心,转而选择云服务。

Invention Machine

一台发明机器

We want to be a large company that’s also an invention machine. We want to combine the extraordinary customer-serving capabilities that are enabled by size with the speed of movement, nimbleness, and riskacceptance mentality normally associated with entrepreneurial start-ups.

我们希望成为一家大公司,这间公司就像一台发明机器。巨大的规模,给了我们为客户服务的卓越能力。我们希望能将服务能力与快速创新的脚步、乐于接受风险的心态相结合。

Can we do it? I’m optimistic. We have a good start on it, and I think our culture puts us in a position to achieve the goal. But I don’t think it’ll be easy. There are some subtle traps that even high-performing large organizations can fall into as a matter of course, and we’ll have to learn as an institution how to guard against them. One common pitfall for large organizations – one that hurts speed and inventiveness – is “one-size-fits-all” decision making.

我们做得到吗?对此我很乐观。在这方面,我们一开始的表现不错,我认为我们的文化可以使我们实现目标。但是我认为这并不容易,即使是高效的大型组织也会陷入一些小陷阱,我们必须作为一个学院来学习如何防范这些小陷阱。大型组织常遇到一个陷阱是-想要用一种决策方式决定所有事情,这样的做法会减弱创新的速度与能力。

Some decisions are consequential and irreversible or nearly irreversible – one-way doors – and these decisions must be made methodically, carefully, slowly, with great deliberation and consultation. If you walk through and don’t like what you see on the other side, you can’t get back to where you were before. We can call these Type 1 decisions. But most decisions aren’t like that – they are changeable, reversible – they’re two-way doors. If you’ve made a suboptimal Type 2 decision, you don’t have to live with the consequences for that long. You can reopen the door and go back through. Type 2 decisions can and should be made quickly by high judgment individuals or small groups.

有些决策的影响是巨大的,甚至是几乎不可逆转的-就像是只有一个通行方向的单向门。这些决定必须条理清晰、谨慎、缓慢地进行,需要经过深思熟虑和咨询。如果通过了单向门以后,你不喜欢看到的景色,那你也无法回到过去。我们可以将这些类决策称为第一类决策。但是大多数决策并非如此-它们是可改变的、可逆转的-就像是有两个通行方向的双向门。如果做出第二类决策不理想,那么你不必忍受长期的后果。你可以重新打开双向门后轻易回到决策前。判断力高的人或组织可以且应该迅速做出第二类决策。

As organizations get larger, there seems to be a tendency to use the heavy-weight Type 1 decision-making process on most decisions, including many Type 2 decisions. The end result of this is slowness, unthoughtful risk aversion, failure to experiment sufficiently, and consequently diminished invention.1 We’ll have to figure out how to fight that tendency.

随着组织规模的扩张,组织将越来越倾向于将第一类决策的决策方式套用在所有决策上,其中包括很多第二类决策。这么做的结果,就是决策缓慢、不敢充分实验,因此减少了发明创造。我们必须搞清楚如何面对这样的决策倾向。

And one-size-fits-all thinking will turn out to be only one of the pitfalls. We’ll work hard to avoid it… and any other large organization maladies we can identify.

一刀切的思维最终会成为陷阱。我们将会努力避免这种情况发生……以及我们所能鉴别的大型组织常见弊病。

Sustainability and Social Invention

永续与社会创新

Our growth has happened fast. Twenty years ago, I was driving boxes to the post office in my Chevy Blazer and dreaming of a forklift. In absolute numbers (as opposed to percentages), the past few years have been especially significant. We’ve grown from 30,000 employees in 2010 to more than 230,000 now. We’re a bit like parents who look around one day and realize their kids are grown – you blink and it happens.

我们增长迅猛。二十年前,我需要开着我的雪佛兰,把包裹送到邮局。那时,我幻想着拥有一台堆高机。从绝对数字(而不是百分比)来看,过去几年的意义非凡。从2010年的3万名员工,发展到如今超过23万名员工。我们就像父母,有一天环顾四周时才意识到自己的孩子已经长大了-眨眨眼,这一切就发生了。

One thing that’s exciting about our current scale is that we can put our inventive culture to work on moving the needle on sustainability and social issues.

我们目前的规模带来的一切好事是,我们可以利用我们的发明文化,努力推动永续发展与社会议题。

Two years ago we set a long-term goal to use 100% renewable energy across our global AWS infrastructure. We’ve since announced four significant wind and solar farms that will deliver 1.6 million megawatt hours per year of additional renewable energy into the electric grids that supply AWS data centers. Amazon Wind Farm Fowler Ridge has already come online. We reached 25% sustainable energy use across AWS last year, are on track to reach 40% this year, and are working on goals that will cover all of Amazon’s facilities around the world, including our fulfillment centers.

两年前,我们设定了一个长期目标-全球AWS基础设施中的能源来源要达到100%可再生能源。

后来,我们启动建造四座风力发电场和太阳能发电场,它们每年将为AWS数据中心的电网提供160万兆瓦的可再生能源。Amazon位于Fowler Ridge的风力发电场已开始运作。去年,AWS的可再生能源使用率达25%,今年有望达到40%。我们正努力实现在所有Amazon设施中(包括配送中心)完全使用可再生能源的的目标。

We’ll keep expanding our efforts in areas like packaging, where our culture of invention led to a big winner – the Frustration-Free Packaging program. Seven years ago we introduced the initiative with 19 products. Today, there are more than 400,000 globally. In 2015, the program eliminated tens of millions of pounds of excess packaging material. Frustration-Free Packaging is a customer delighter because the packages are easier to open. It’s good for the planet because it creates less waste. And it’s good for shareholders because, with tighter packaging, we ship less “air” and save on transportation costs.

我们会持续包装领域投入心力。在发明文化的引领下,Frustration-Free包装计划取得丰硕成果。七年前,我们最初推出了19种产品,而今年全球共计有超过40种产品。

2015年,Frustration-Free包装计划减少了数千万磅的多余包装材料。Frustration-Free包装是客户满意的选择,因为包装更易于打开,而且对地球有益。Frustration-Free包装计划对股东也有好处,因为包装更加紧实,包装中的空气更少,因此可以节省运输成本。

We also continue to pioneer new programs for employees – like Career Choice, Leave Share, and Ramp Back. Career Choice pre-pays 95% of tuition for courses that teach in-demand skills, regardless of whether those skills are relevant to a career at Amazon. We’ll pay for nursing certifications, airplane mechanic courses, and many others. We’re building classrooms with glass walls right in our fulfillment centers as a way to encourage employees to participate in the program and to make it easy. We see the impact through stories like Sharie Warmack – a single mother of eight who worked in one of our Phoenix fulfillment centers. Career Choice paid for Sharie to get licensed to drive an 18-wheeler. Sharie worked hard, passed her tests, and she’s now a long-haul driver for Schneider Trucking – and loving it. This coming year, we’re launching a program to teach other interested companies the benefits of Career Choice and how to implement it.

我们也持续为员工启动新的计划,例如职业选择计划(Career Choice)、假期共享(Leave Share)计划和重返工作计划(Ramp Back)。职业选择计划会为员工预付课程的95%学费,而且不用考虑这些课程教授的技能是否与员工在公司的职位相关。我们将支付护理课程、飞机修护课程和许多其他费用。我们正在配送中心建造新教室,鼓励员工参加此计划,并让计划进行得更顺利。Sharie Warmack等人的故事,让我们看到这个计划带来的影响力。Sharie Warmack是八个孩子的妈妈,在Amazon凤凰城配送中心工作。职业选择计划为Sharie支付了取得半挂式卡车驾驶执照的费用。Sharie努力工作,并通过了测试,现在她是Schneider卡车公司的长途司机-这是一份她热爱的工作。我们将启动计划,向其他对此感兴趣的公司传授职业选择计划的好处,以及如何实施职业选择计划。

Leave Share and Ramp Back are programs that give new parents flexibility with their growing families. Leave Share lets employees share their Amazon paid leave with their spouse or domestic partner if their spouse’s employer doesn’t offer paid leave. Ramp Back gives birth mothers additional control over the pace at which they return to work. Just as with our health care plan, these benefits are egalitarian – they’re the same for our fulfillment center and customer service employees as they are for our most senior executives.

假期共享计划与重返工作计划可为新手父母提供灵活性。如果员工的配偶的雇主不提供带薪休假,则员工的带薪休假额度可与其配偶或家庭伴侣共享。重返工作计划给予妈妈权力,让她们对生完孩子重返工作的节奏有更多控制。就像我们的医疗保健计划一样,这些好处对配送中心和客户服务的基层员工和管理高层员工都是一样的。

Renewable energy, Frustration-Free Packaging, Career Choice, Leave Share, and Ramp Back are examples of a culture that embraces invention and long-term thinking. It’s very energizing to think that our scale provides opportunities to create impact in these areas.

可再生能源、Frustration-Free包装计划、职业选择计划、假期共享计划和重返工作计划正是发明文化和长期思考的结果。规模提供我们这些产生影响力的机会,非常令人为之振奋。

I can tell you it’s a great joy for me to get to work every day with a team of such smart, imaginative, and passionate people. On behalf of all of us at Amazon, thank you for your support as shareholders. As always, I attach a copy of our original 1997 letter. Our approach remains the same, and it’s still Day 1.

我可以告诉你,每天与如此聪明、富于想象力和热情的团队一起工作,对我来说是一种极大的快乐。我代表Amazon的所有员工,感谢你作为股东的支持。如同往常,我把我们在1997年写的致股东信附在文末。我们的价值观依然不变,今天依旧是Day 1。

Jeffrey P. Bezos

Founder and Chief Executive Officer

Amazon.com, Inc.

杰夫·贝索斯

Amazon创始人暨CEO

我的观点

这是2015年,亚马逊成为了年销售额1000亿美元的公司,其中AWS还在高速增长。

贝索斯觉得亚马逊增长迅速的原因是因为:鼓励创新,鼓励失败的企业文化。 这种独特的企业文化,关注少数原则并坚信不移,才让亚马逊这么快速的增长。

他认为亚马逊的成功是因为对客户的关注,而不是对竞争对手的关注。对发明和开拓事业的渴望,并愿意为此承担失败的可能。对长期思考的耐心,以及对卓越运营的自豪感。

亚马逊的企业文化描述,我感觉也不错——无论好与坏,它们都是持久、稳定且难以改变的。企业文化其实都是人,人创造故事,然后人和故事塑造企业文化。

贝索斯还鼓励失败,还说亚马逊是世界上最好对待失败的地方。他认为失败和发明密不可分,大多数的大型组织只想要发明的成果,但是不想承担失败,这是不对的。 其实最大的赢家,是做最多实验的那位。

他还提到大型组织常遇到一个陷阱是-想要用一种决策方式决定所有事情,这样的做法会减弱创新的速度与能力。做决策,不能一刀切。

确实,一直都没有银弹,也没有永远实用的决策方式,大公司肯定是没有小公司能够创新的。但是为什么亚马逊还这么能创新呢?

第十九封信:成为年销售千亿美元的公司”的一个响应

亚马逊致股东信解读 – Pxiaoer's Blog进行回复 取消回复

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